313PMH101 – Principles of Hospital Management

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Hospital management considered the implication collaborated with hospitals administration or management process. Hospital management ensures direct interaction in between health care services and ultimately those which demand services supplying. Considering this perception, the study is developed to shed light on various indicators associated with hospital management practices.

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Indicator 1:  Equipment & supplies

1.1 Rationale

Sufficient training in accordance to appropriate utilisation and undertaking relevant methods for the purpose of doffing and donning of personal protective equipment (PPE) remains demanding. However, certain recent research studies exclaimed that personnel frequently utilised incorrect techniques for doffing and donning PPE and that can lead to an increased risk for both clothing and skin contamination with associated healthcare pathogens(Wang, Zhang & He, 2020).

1.2 Literature references

313PMH101 - Principles of Hospital Management

Figure 1: Literature Resource

(Sources: Based on, John et al. 2017)

1.3 Indicators definition

Effective utilisation and consideration of personal protective equipment (PPE) are regarded as necessary for protecting the purpose of both patients and personnel in accordance with healthcare settings. Often, healthcare observed undertaking inappropriate techniques for doffing and donning of PPE and hence study demanded hypothesis testing that medical students acquire insufficient training for utilisation of PPE (Johnet al. 2017).

1.4 Calculation

Out of a total of 27 medical students, only 41% (11) identified acquiring PPE training while the rest of them had not received any required proficiency demonstration training. During the simulations stage, 25 out of that 27 students own one or more technique lapses while 12 observed contamination along with fluorescent lotion on the skin.

1.5 Data collection plan

1.5.1 Collection frequency

A cross-sectional survey along with the medical students have been collected at two diverse teaching hospitals undertaking clinical rotations for exploring the actual training type they acquire in concern to PPE technique.

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1.5.2 Data sources

In this particular research process, the researcher has collaborated proceeding along with primary quantitative information sources. It is considered an effective measure for undertaking relevant information related to the selected indicators (Johnet al. 2017).

1.5.3 Method

Survey method in the research work has been considered along with written and completed questionnaires on received PPE training in concern to PPE related knowledge and protocols in the medical school.

1.5.4 Target goal

There significantly requires the development of effective and appropriate strategies for training purpose medical students for corrective utilisation means of PPE.

Indicator 2: Skill mix

2.1 Rationale

The selected research paper collaborates with the main motive for measuring purpose the of planned changes impact considering the skill-mix and nurse staffing in accordance to the nurse, patient and the ultimate outcomes of the organisation(Nelson et al.2018).

2.2 Literature references

313PMH101 - Principles of Hospital Management

Figure 2: Literature Resource

(Sources: Based on Drennan et al. 2018)

2.3 Indicators definition

According to the recent health management implication, it has been reflected that there prevail diverse design limitations in the various researches that lead determining the relationship between patient and nurse staffing and also to ultimate organizational outcomes. Hence, there exists a demand for longitudinal inclusive design undertaking a planned considering change process in concern to nurse staffing for measuring purpose of the ultimate organizational, patient, nurse and economic outcomes(Drennan et al. 2018).

2.4 Calculation

Cross-sectional experience of the patient has been selected in accordance to nurse and data outcomes which include job satisfaction, nursing work, missed care and burnout after the considering process of the planned changes in skill mix and nurse staffing.

2.5 Data collection plan

2.5.1 Collection frequency

Data has been gathered at prior intervals to, after and during the planned changes implementation process in skill-mix and nurse staffing.

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2.5.2 Data sources

Administrative data sources have been considered on a side-by-side prospectively basis over that of a three-year period implication.

2.5.3 Method

The research involves employing a multi-method and longitudinal approach for evaluating the purpose of the impact of the planned changes in skill mix and nurse staffing onwards in the context of three diverse pilot hospitals.

2.5.4 Target goal

To acquire evidence related to the planned change impact to skill-mix and nurse staffing on the systematic approach basis undertaking a longitudinal design follows by determining the approach extent to which can be adopted at the national stage(Drennan et al. 2018).

Indicator 3: Communication with the patient

3.1 Rationale

This particular ethnographic research was to acquire acute practising care nurses’ experiences, especially where health care scenarios are observed various richly. The main motive of the study includes exploring how practically nurse negotiate and communicate with culturally diverse families and patients(Ward, 2018).

3.2 Literature references

313PMH101 - Principles of Hospital Management

Figure 3: Literature Resource

(Sources: Based on Linnard-Palmer, 2019)

3.3 Indicators definition

Health care management requires evolving with investigating the nurse’s navigation measure through clinical difficult scenarios where families are expected to experience distance power which can further precede with various negative implications(Linnard-Palmer, 2019).

3.4 Calculation

Considering a total of 33 interviews, it can be identified that the researchers acquire power distance lead contribution towards the development of the error.

3.5 Data collection plan

3.5.1 Collection frequency

Demographics considered the mean nursing years practice was 25.8 years and the mean age of participants was actually 53 years.

3.5.2 Data source

Primary qualitative data source included various cultural diver participants involved along with nursing practice.

3.5.3 Method

The ethnographic methodology was undertaken via unlimited length inclusive in-depth interviews. The undertaken interviews measure was in the audio-taped form and transcribed for thematic identification and content analysis.

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3.5.4 Target goal

Nurses who collaborate along with diverse culturally interdisciplinary teams along with culturally diverse families and patients must require to ascertain that power distance develops difficulties to safe care measures. However, several implications require in accordance with education and practice (Linnard-Palmer, 2019).

Indicator 4: Antibiotics before surgery

4.1 Rationale

Antibiotics are mainly prescribed for the purpose of oral conditions in accordance to periodontal manifestations, endodontic and oral surgical. The research work collaborates acquired estimating the antibiotics preference in pediatric dentistry(Craig et al.2019).

4.2 Literature references

313PMH101 - Principles of Hospital Management

Figure 4: Literature Resource

(Source: Based on, Inchara, Ganapathy & Kumar, 2019)

4.3 Indicators definition

Unwarranted antibiotics utilisation is extensively reported among children mostly in the context of dental and ear infections. Microbial resistance in children to that of antibiotics is subjected to well-documented and is refers to severe global health concerns. It happens due to inappropriate antibiotics utilisation by clinicians(Inchara, Ganapathy & Kumar, 2019).

4.4 Calculation

When deliberately asked, 31.6% of them said not actually prescribed with any antibiotics kind while 69.4% of them were actually prescribed with antibiotics.

4.5 Data collection plan

4.5.1 Collection frequency

The data is collected in accordance to provided studies from dentists along with the antibiotics utilisation in accordance to determine pediatric dental practice and the acquired results were analysed statistically.

4.5.2 Data sources

Primary quantitative data sources have been considered for effectively undertaking information related to the selected indicators.

4.5.3 Method

A questionnaire set was developed and the survey was conducted among the selected dentists considering the survey planet measure.

4.5.4 Target goal

Correct utilisation of antibiotics is vital to ensure the availability of safe and effective treatment(Inchara, Ganapathy & Kumar, 2019).

Indicator 5: Beta-blockers for AMI

5.1 Rationale

The investigation related to selected developed association in between adherence to that beta-blocker treatment demanded after long-term heart failure and death risk along with first acute myocardial infarction (AMI)(Hossain et al.2018).

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5.2 Literature references

313PMH101 - Principles of Hospital Management

Figure 5: Literature Resource

(Source: Based on Desta et al. 2021)

5.3 Indicators definition

Considering that of beta-blockers, the long-term risk associated with mortality and heart failure requires considering after the actual interaction of myocardial infarction(Desta et al. 2021).

5.4 Calculation

Threshold days covered proportion level in the customary form identified covering ≥80% which were subsequently utilised for classification purpose of patients as non-adherent or adherent.

5.5 Data collection plan

5.5.1 Collection frequency

Data were frequently collected adherence to that determination of prescribed beta-blockers. Undertaking the national registry after consideration of the index event and was measured as covered days implication.

5.5.2 Data sources

Data sources are undertaken in concern of admitted patients’ implication for the first AMI comprised within the web-system inclusive nationwide scenario.

5.5.3 Method

Independently adherence is associated with the improved long-term implications followed by uncertainty perception for patients with NEF and HFNEF.

5.5.4 Target goal

Almost one out of three AMI patients was beta-blockers to non-adherent within the first functioning year(Desta et al. 2021).

Indicator 6: Patient sharing in the decision-making process


The particular process helps the healthcare professionals to make decisions in the treatment process of the care seekers. Moreover, the process is very useful while choosing the right diagnostic process as well as the effective tests and treatment process for the treatment of the care seekers (Wang &Bellomo, 2017). The process helps the cardiac care seekers to get a better treatment process as well as the right healthcare by efficient healthcare professionals.

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6.2Literature references

313PMH101 - Principles of Hospital Management

Figure: Literature Reference

(Source: Wang &Bellomo, 2017)

6.3Indicators definition

The particular indicator helps to manage the treatment process of the care seekers to get proper tests as well as checkups. The indicator helps to get effective treatment for cardiac surgery care seekers (Wang &Bellomo, 2017). Moreover, the care seekers get effective suggestions for the treatment of “acute kidney injury” while performing cardiac surgery.


Total sample size 200 care seekers

Almost 31.2 % of care seekers get treatment following the process of the indicators as well as surviving.

6.5Data collection plan

6.5.1Collection frequency

The data has been collected from various care seekers of the ICU of the healthcare organisations to get more relevant data.

6.5.2Data sources

The researcher has adopted the primary research process for collecting the data to make the research process more authentic (Wang &Bellomo, 2017). The data of the research process has indicated qualitative analysis.


The research process comprises various effective methods for the benefit of the care seekers which consist of the perspectives of various care seekers who have faced the process of the indicator.


Identification of the effectiveness concerning the “Patient sharing in Decision-making process” related to cardiac surgery treatments of the care seekers who are suffering from Acute Kidney Injury.

Indicator 7: Satisfaction medical cases


The particular indicator is an effective method to understand the satisfaction of the care seekers. Moreover, the indicator will analyse the rate of satisfaction of the care seekers (Yang et al. 2017).

7.2Literature references

313PMH101 - Principles of Hospital Management

Figure 2: Literature Reference

(Source: Yang et al. 2017)

7.3Indicators definition

The particular process helps to manage the indicators while understanding the rate of performance of the care seekers who have taken the treatment of surgery (Yang et al. 2017). The indicator will tell the satisfaction rate of the care seekers.


Total number of sample 152 care seekers

Almost 42% of care seekers get success of the treatment process to tell the rate of success of the process

7.5Data collection plan

7.5.1Collection frequency

All the care seekers’ opinions have been collected to understand the satisfaction rate after surgery.

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7.5.2Data sources

The researcher had taken the strategy of the primary qualitative data collection process. The perspectives of the participants get the qualitative data for the effective research process.


The researcher had collected all the opinions of the participants to make the research process more relevant.

7.5.4Target goal

Identified the relevance of the indicator for understanding the rate of medical satisfaction.

Indicator 8: Knowledge about self-care and condition


The particular indicator helps to manage the perceptions of the care seekers regarding “Percutaneous Coronary Interventions” which manages the preoperative healthcare process (Zhuoet al. 2021). The particular process helps the care seekers to obtain knowledge regarding the pre-treatment process before the surgery of the cardiac care seekers.

8.2Literature references

313PMH101 - Principles of Hospital Management

Figure 1: Literature References

(Source: Zhuoet al. 2021)


The particular indicator helps the care seekers to understand their own health condition as well as the process of the treatment needed regarding the process of their particular health issues. In the case of the care seekers who need the cardiac surgery, they have to be aware of the preoperative procedures of the health care process (Zhuoet al. 2021). Thus, the care seekers get the knowledge of the treatment process effectively to make the process more fruitful.


As per the analysis, a total of 17 care seekers were interviewed who had been suffering from serious cardiac health issues. However, the 14th participant was interviewed twice as the interview process was interrupted by the healthcare treatment procedure of the individual (Zhuoet al. 2021). Most of them responded positively regarding the process of the healthcare process where the knowledge about self-care will be fruitful.

8.5Datacollection plan

8.5.1Collection frequency

Perceptions of all the participants have been collected as well as the opinions of every participant have been considered.

8.5.2Data sources

The research process has continued the whole process by collecting the primary data by conducting the interview of the care seekers.


The interview process has been continued with the questionnaire form by taking the consent of the care seekers to maintain their privacy.

8.5.4Target goal

The goal of the indicator process will be identifying the effectiveness of the treatment process of the PCT for the care seekers.

Indicator 9: Morality


The particular indicator helps to manage the healthcare process by considering the care seekers’ moral intentions (Brown et al. 2020). Moreover, the behavioural norms of the care seekers need to be considered in the healthcare treatment process.

9.2Literature references

313PMH101 - Principles of Hospital Management

Figure 2: Literature Reference

(Source: Brown et al. 2020)


The indicator “Morality” helps to define the need of behavioural intentions of the healthcare process for the benefit of the health (Brown et al. 2020). The indicator helps to manage the caring process as well as considering the behavioural norms.


The study says that almost 35,817 care seekers are to be taken as samples for the interview process. Moreover, the conditions of morality for the care seekers have been considered for the interview process.

9.5Datacollection plan

9.5.1Collection frequency

The data of the care seekers have been considered to manage the research process authentic. Moreover, the research process has maintained the process effectively for the consideration of the qualitative data.

9.5.2Data sources

Primary qualitative data have been collected through the research process for maintaining the research process more relevant.


Taking the case study of the care seekers have been collected for the research process.

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9.5.4Target goal

Identification of the effective consideration related to the morality of the care seekers of the healthcare seekers.

Indicator 10: Presence of signs, symptoms and disease severity


The particular process helps to manage the care seekers as well as the healthcare professionals to identify the illness considering the symptoms as well as the signs of the illness (Subramaniam et al. 2019).

10.2Literature references

313PMH101 - Principles of Hospital Management

Figure 3: Literature References

(Source: Subramaniam et al. 2019)

10.3Indicators definition

The particular indicator helps to manage the process of healthcare for the better identification of the illness (Subramaniam et al. 2019).


The data of almost 120 care seekers above the age group of 60 years have been collected for gathering information.

10.5Data collection plan

10.5.1   Collection frequency

The perceptions of the care seekers as well as their conditions of health have been considered.

10.5.2   Data sources

The primary data collection method such as taking the case study of the care seekers have been collected

10.5.3   Method

Managing privacy of the care seekers’ information has been collected (Subramaniam et al. 2019)

10.5.4   Target goal

The identification of effectiveness considering the signs, as well as symptoms of the care seekers in the healthcare organisation will be the goal.


Thus, it can be concluded that the system inclusive of hospital management was mainly introduced for the purpose to help hospitals to leverage or speed up their various processes. The information related to hospital management is undertaken for managing means of diverse information in accordance with the health care system. Besides, it also ensures aids in the effective health care providers’ job completion extent. Hence, the healthcare sector is said to mainly influence in collaboration with efficient health management practices or systems. 

Reference list

Brown, C. R., Chen, Z., Khurshan, F., Groeneveld, P. W., & Desai, N. D. (2020). Development of persistent opioid use after cardiac surgery. JAMA cardiology, 5(8), 889-896. Retrieved on 18-11-2021 from: https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamacardiology/article-abstract/2766890 

Craig, J. R., McHugh, C. I., Griggs, Z. H., & Peterson, E. I. (2019). Optimal timing of endoscopic sinus surgery for odontogenic sinusitis. The Laryngoscope129(9), 1976-1983. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/lary.28001

Desta, L., Khedri, M., Jernberg, T., Andell, P., Mohammad, M. A., Hofman‐Bang, C., … & Persson, H. (2021). Adherence to beta‐blockers and long‐term risk of heart failure and mortality after myocardial infarction. ESC Heart Failure8(1), 344-355. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/ehf2.13079

Drennan, J., Duffield, C., Scott, A. P., Ball, J., Brady, N. M., Murphy, A., … & Griffiths, P. (2018). A protocol to measure the impact of intentional changes to nurse staffing and skill‐mix in medical and surgical wards. Journal of advanced nursing74(12), 2912-2921. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/jan.13796

Hossain, M. A., Ahmed, K., Kabir, M. F. I., Khaled, M. F. I., Rashed, R. H., Al Amin, M., … & Hoque, H. (2018). A Comparative Study of Bisoprolol with Carvedilol on LV Systolic Function in Patients with Chronic Heart Failure. University Heart Journal14(1), 3-8. https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/UHJ/article/view/38478

Inchara, R., Ganapathy, D., & Kumar, P. K. (2019). Preference of antibiotics in pediatric dentistry. Drug Invent Today11, 1495-1498.https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Kiran-Pandurangan/publication/335442303_Preference_of_antibiotics_in_pediatric_dentistry/links/5d6601e1299bf1f70b124964/Preference-of-antibiotics-in-pediatric-dentistry.pdf

John, A., Tomas, M. E., Hari, A., Wilson, B. M., &Donskey, C. J. (2017). Do medical students receive training incorrect use of personal protective equipment?. Medical education online22(1), 1264125.https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/10872981.2017.1264125

Linnard-Palmer, L. R. (2019). Communication, Power Distance, and Medication Errors: An Ethnographic Exploration of Cultural Care Practices.https://sigma.nursingrepository.org/handle/10755/622169

Nelson, P., Martindale, A. M., McBride, A., Checkland, K., & Hodgson, D. (2018). Skill-mix change and the general practice workforce challenge.https://bjgp.org/content/68/667/66.short

Subramaniam, B., Shankar, P., Shafi, S., Mueller, A., O’Gara, B., Banner-Goodspeed, V., … & Marcantonio, E. R. (2019). Effect of intravenous acetaminophen vs placebo combined with propofol or dexmedetomidine on postoperative delirium among older patients following cardiac surgery: the DEXACET randomized clinical trial. Jama, 321(7), 686-696. Retrieved on 18-11-2021 from:https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/article-abstract/2725234

Wang, X., Zhang, X., & He, J. (2020). Challenges to the system of reserve medical supplies for public health emergencies: reflections on the outbreak of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) epidemic in China. Bioscience trends14(1), 3-8.https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/bst/14/1/14_2020.01043/_article/-char/ja/

Wang, Y., &Bellomo, R. (2017). Cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury: risk factors, pathophysiology and treatment. Nature Reviews Nephrology, 13(11), 697-711. Retrieved on 17-11-2021 from:https://www.nature.com/articles/nrneph.2017.119

Ward, P. (2018). Trust and communication in a doctor-patient relationship: a literature review. Arch Med3(3), 36.https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Masoud-Mohammadnezhad/publication/327575093_Trust_and_Communication_in_a_Doctor-_Patient_Relationship_A_Literature_Review/links/5ca3d2efa6fdcc12ee8ed438/Trust-and-Communication-in-a-Doctor-Patient-Relationship-A-Literature-Review.pdf

Yang, L., Kaye, A. D., Venakatesh, A. G., Green, M. S., Asgarian, C. D., Luedi, M. M., & Liu, H. (2017). Enhanced recovery after cardiac surgery: An update on clinical implications. International anesthesiology clinics, 55(4), 148-162. Retrieved on 17-11-2021 from https://journals.lww.com/anesthesiaclinics/fulltext/2017/05540/Enhanced_Recovery_after_Cardiac_Surgery___An.12.aspx :

Zhuo, Q., Liang, H., Bai, Y., Hu, Q., Hanum, A. L., Yang, M., … & Ma, F. (2021). Perceptions of patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention on pre‐operative education in China: A qualitative study. Health Expectations, 24(1), 121-130. Retrieved on 18-11-2021 from:https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/hex.13156 

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