The concept of adventure tourism leads to attracting visitors to different places. Therefore, this study intends to focus on adventure tourism with specifications on historical themes. In this chapter, the aim and objective are being interpreted to make an effective demonstration of adventure tourism appropriately. Other than this, it also analysed problems that lead to affect the business probability of adventure tourism in different destinations to attract visitors. This portion of the research study aids to analyse the significance of adventure tourism, which is managed by board sports, wildlife and marine activities.
(Source: As inspired by Pérez-Vega et al. 2018)
Current marketing trends on part of tourism have been supportive by presenting adventure activities, which lead to gaining the attention of targeted audiences. Thus, this study emphasises analysing features of adventure tourism followed by different destinations that are majorly found attractive by visitors in global markets. Similarly, the purpose of this research study is to identify different types of adventure tourism that can be differentiated as per hard and soft adventures alongside the preferences of visitors. Pérez-Vega et al. (20) noted that social media plays an influential role in the promotion of tourism and provides a platform for audiences for sharing visiting experiences. This has helped in recognising that adventure tourism is majorly preferred by audiences across different nations and which has been clearly expressed in social media channels like Facebook.
This study intends to come up with relevant steps to improve business operations of adventure tourism in overseas markets so that sustainability increases positively. Adventure tourism is majorly preferred by soft and hard activities that are also included with support of wildlife adventure, marine adventure and board sports. In this manner, it has been understood that this study focuses on analysing customised activities to satisfy visitors in a convenient process on part of adventure tourism. Improvement of activities on adventure tourism directly leads to the development of tourism business and ensures to increase market sustainability.
This study aims to analyse the concept of adventure tourism and its effect on tourism industries in global markets. It also identifies better means to enhance functions and operations on part of adventure tourism.
The proposition of accommodation and the presence of climate risks tend to provide issues for adventure tourism. Grigorieva (2020) noted that environmental turmoil leads to reduced profitability of tourism industries in markets and results in a decrease in customer touchpoints as destinations become risky for visitors. These types of issues have been affecting the growth of adventure tourism and negatively impact on revenue of businesses. Moreover, approaches to weather fluctuations intend to put a negative impact on adventure tourism as it becomes difficult for visitors to select destinations for wildlife, marine activities. Therefore, it is required by adventure tourism to make business planning as per analysing environmental sustainability, which would help in maintaining tourism growth by the support of adventures in competitive markets.
Projection of adventure tourism comes up with innovative trends to gain the attention of visitors by imposing new activities and sports due to which tourism business explores further in competitive markets to other rival industries. Moreover, the alignment of adventure with tourism helps in making the interconnection between cultural aspects with environmental factors, upon which tourism businesses directly depend. According to Giddy & Webb (2018) sustainability of environmental factors leads to maintaining a probability for the occurrence of tourists as selected for destinations. This helps in analysing that the effect of environmental factors plays a significant contribution towards successful outcomes for adventure tourism in business fields. However, the application of the latest trends like wildlife adventure, marine adventure, board sports, heli-skiing, mountaineering, white water rafting and the application of different sports help to increase attraction levels among targeted audiences. Thus, regulation of these types of activities helps in maintaining good income levels and leads to increased profit margins for adventure tourism businesses in competitive markets.
(Source: Created by author)
The first chapter introduced an interpretation of the aim, objectives and questions to help in analysing provided topics in research. The second chapter provides a literature review with relevant academic citing and evaluates the literature gap that presents a limitation of this chapter. The third chapter is the methodology that emphasises the selection of tools and techniques for the composition of instrumentation regarding the gathering of information related to the topic. The fourth chapter analyses gather information in quantitative and qualitative methods that help to improve the credibility and authenticity of research. The fifth chapter presents conclusions as per lessons learnt based on the subject and accordingly provides recommendations for future improvement.
From this study, it has been understood that evaluation of aim and objectives alongside research questions highlights the credibility of research work. However, in this discussion, it has been understood that the implementation of objectives and aims would aid to interpret analytical points in upcoming chapters. This chapter has helped in understanding initial contributions presented by background towards the role of social media for promoting adventure tourism. Moreover, the application of convenient steps tends to improve services of adventure tourism, due to which tourism businesses enhance in overseas business regions and lead to attracting domestic and international audiences in targeted markets.
Adventure tourism is defined as a form of tourism wherein tourists seek new and different experiences that involve thrilling activities. According to Rantala et al. (2018), adventure tourism is a form of tourism activity involving cultural exchange, physical activities as well as activities performed in nature. It involves forming a connection with a new culture along with newer landscapes while being physically active during the journey. Basariya and Ahmed (2019) noted that a few popular adventure tourism activities include day hiking, scuba diving, free-falling, zip-lining, climbing, skiing, mountain biking and rafting among many others. These cavities are performed under expert guidance and involve interactions between adventure activities and natural environments. Hudson (2012) maintained that adventure tourism includes leisure activities that take place in exotic, unusual, remote or wilderness destinations. It usually involves unconventional means of transportation and is associated with either low or high levels of physical activity. Sato et al. (2018) asserted that the key difference between adventure tourism from other types of tourism is the planning and preparation needed for being physically ready to perform activities. It is a comparatively newer concept within the tourism industry promoting gaining popularity as a niche sector within tourism. This form of tourism has gained immense popularity among younger tourists who seek to try new activities while stepping out of their comfort zone. This form of tourism has become an effective process of attracting tourists to tourist attractions that possess a wide range of natural resources in the form of forests, rivers other water bodies and hiking trails. Some of the popular adventure tourism destinations globally include Thailand, Nepal, New Zealand, Spain, Costa Rica and Australia among many others as they have a wide blend of natural resources that provide an opportunity for adventure sports and other tourist activities. As per the observations made by Buckley et al. (2014), adventure tourism is characterised by the involvement of physical and psychomotor skills. This leads to an enhanced experience while contacting people from different religions, cultures and lifestyles. Rantala et al. (2018) stated that adventure tourism provides a unique insight into the exploration, discovery and anticipated rewards that each tourist gains from their expenditure. This makes it a rapidly growing area of tourism that focuses on attracting and satisfying adventure, cultural and natural exploration along management in strenuous physical activities. Such locations are marketed by highlighting the nature of activities and experiences that individuals would get from their travelling making it a unique area of tourism.
Although humans have engaged in travelling since ancient times in search of food, shelter and survival, the concept of adventure tourism as a commercial tourist activity has emerged in recent years. Buckley et al. (2014) observed that in the mid-1800s adventurers tested their ability to climb mountains and perform river rafting. This led to an increase in the popularity of trekking and mountain climbing in Matterhorn and river rafting in the Colorado River. Successful mountain climbing initiatives including that of the ascent of Mount Everest and the Annapurna range led to modern adventure tourism from the mid-1950s. The media coverage and popularity gained by Tenzin Norgay and Edmund Hillary for their record of climbing Mount Everest paved the way for newer exploration opportunities and interest among young travellers. Rantala, Rokenes&Valkonen (2018) determined that in recent years adventure tourism has emerged as a dynamic and fast-evolving sector that has been expanding exponentially. This has further gained prominence due to the initiatives taken by SMEs and entrepreneurs to promote local cultural and natural sites for adventure tourism. Williams et al. (2017) observed that adventure tourism has particularly helped the promotion of tourism activities and economic transactions in rural areas providing a cultural and adventure experience for thrill-seekers. This has led to the new phenomenon of hiring professional guides, technical equipment and support to travel for seeking adventurous activities, natural along with cultural interpretation.
The increased awareness and popularity surrounding adventure tourism have led SMEs, entrepreneurs and governments to promote and market their local destinations as unique experiences for their travellers. According to Rantala, Rokenes&Valkonen (2018), adventure tourism provides an opportunity to seek a rare and incomparable experience from their vacation and focuses on marketing to younger travellers. The variety of activities within adventure tourism including caving, trekking, hiking, sailing and river rafting among many others are categorised into soft and hard adventure tourism. Buckley et al. (2014) observed that hard adventure tourism involves activities that are physically demanding and strenuous. This type of tourism involves a higher level of risk, advanced skills and intense commitment. Basariya. & Ahmed (2019) asserted that hard adventure tourism involves a higher level of risk of performing physical activities in nature and requires professional guidance to prevent fatalities. Performing activities like mountain climbing and scuba diving without professional guidance and proper physical training lead to an increased risk of accidents that tourists are prone to. On the other hand, soft adventure tourism is considered relatively safer and easier to perform. As per the study conducted by Hudson (2012), soft adventure tourism is perceived with low risk leading to a reduced level of risk, minimal commitment as well as ease to engage in beginner level skills. These types of activities can be performed under experienced personnel. Sato et al. (2018) identified that soft adventure tourism includes hiking, camping, kayaking and backpacking among many others. It has gained relatively more popular among younger tourists along with those in their middle age for exploring newer natural and cultural sites. As per the views of Williams et al. (2017), adventure tourism activities particularly soft types of activities are aligned with the natural environment of the destination. The study found a key difference between the preferences of Japanese and Western consumers regarding their choice of hard and soft adventure tourism. It was noted that while Japanese consumers focused more on soft adventure tourism, Western consumers seek a blend of soft and hard adventure tourism activities. This makes it favourable to use natural resources that lead to sensory stimulus, engagement, the discovery of newer cultures and communities.
Wildlife tourism is one of the fastest-growing tourism industries in this modern world by providing a real wildlife scenario for visitors. In wildlife tourism, visitors are able to experience bird watching, recreational fishing, visiting Zoological gardens, hunting and several others. The wildlife tourism industry has taken responsibility for securing visitors from wildlife issues during experiencing wild lives. As followed by Peacock et al. (2017), through these activities, visitors can experience a more attractive atmosphere and enjoy diverse wildlife activities. Technological advancement processes in transportation services can also improve the attraction for visitors. It can help visitors to develop their motivation factors in participating in wildlife tourism due to which sustainable atmosphere within these tourism sectors can be developed.
Marine tourism is one of the attractive tourism settings for visitors through which service providers are able to provide a beautiful scenario of marine life for visitors. Service providers of marine tourism can allow visitors to focus on marine environments through which they can experience a peaceful environment in marine life. According to Basariya& Ahmed (2019), visitors can experience several activities within marine tourism depending on requirements and security concerns. It includes scuba diving, fishing, windsurfing, observing birds, visiting villages of fishing, maritime museums and several others. Through these attractive activities, visitors are much more excited to participate and experience these marine tourism activities without facing any issues. It can be helpful for marine tourism by providing quality services and activities depending on visitors’ requirements.
Board sports are one of the crucial sports for tourists during experiencing marine tourism through which visitors are able to take part in the board sports competition. In this sport, people are required to perform a race using several boats that include surfboard, jet skis, snowboarding, scootering and several others. As opined by Cheng et al. (2018), through these boards, visitors of marine and other tourism can experience live events of competition through which they are able to accomplish their requirements of board sports. During performing board sports, service operators have carefully analysed the condition and race track to nullify the issues. Therefore, service providers can provide a secure path for visitors that they can take part and perform their individual activities without facing any issues in this tourism operation.
Heli-skiing is one of the most adventurous tourism in this modern world by performing snowboarding from a height where a ski lift cannot reach. Through this heli-skiing, users are able to experience adrenaline-pumping activities through which they can reach a height from which visitors can perform skiing without any issues. As followed by Giddy & Webb (2018), in this way, this is one of the most adventurous tourism activities within this modern world. A helicopter can take visitors who have experts in skiing and leave a height where a ski lift cannot reach. Therefore, the visitors can experience skin from that height and a helicopter always follows visitors for security concerns. In this way, security management and experiencing adventurous activities can be executed properly.
Mountaineering tourism plays an essential role in developing attractions for tourism industries by providing some mountaineering activities. Through these activities, visitors can easily experience mountain climbing, indoor climbing, sport climbing and skiing from a height. As opined by Basariya& Ahmed (2019), these activities can motivate visitors to take their services or activities and fulfil their requirements. During performing these climbing operations, service providers are able to secure the condition of their participants that visitors can experience secured mountain climbing. A safety rope has been attached with visitors as if they fall during climbing then safety rope can hold visitors from falling. As proposed by Giddy & Webb (2016), it can be beneficial for people to understand this situation and accept to part in this adventurous sport without any hesitation. It can bring stability within their service operators due to which accuracy in performance management within this tourism can be organised.
White-water rafting is one of the most attractive adventurous sports in tourism sectors by performing rafting activities in a secured manner. Visitors are required to follow some rules during performing these activities to organise safety during participating in this sports operation. It includes being comfortable and safe, wearing a life jacket, knowing all commands, staying in the boat and holding the paddle properly. As proposed by Sato et al. (2018), these activities are required to be followed during performing white-water rafting to ensure the security of individuals. By following these rules, visitors can easily experience this adventurous sport without facing any issues and also maintain the satisfaction rate without facing any issues. It can bring a sustainable atmosphere within this tourism industry as well.
Adventure sports are one of the main attractions for visitors during taking tourism activities within the tourism industry. Through adventure sports, visitors are able to accomplish their desire depending on requirements through adventure sports. As opined by Buckley et al. (2014), it includes bungee jumping, scuba diving, rock climbing, dirt biking, hang gliding and several others. Through these sports, visitors can enjoy their adventurous journey within tourism industries due to which growth and stability in tourism industries can be developed. It can also help in attracting more visitors to tourism industries and also maintain the flow of operations without facing any issues. Through these activities, adventurous activities can be executed properly without facing any issues.
Water sports give a satisfying ride for visitors due to which they are able to experience marine life without facing any issues. It includes surfing, sailing, fishing, boarding and several others. According to Jenkins (2019), through these activities, tourism industries can satisfy visitors’ needs to enhance their business rate. During performing these activities, visitors can feel safe as the main priority of tourism industries is to secure all the experiences of visitors by providing a secured environment. Thus, they are able to perform their individual activities without facing any issues that can be beneficial for tourism industries.
Adventure tourism comes up with ideas of creative features in places that attract tourists in destinations and ensures to provide vacation facilities to visitors. According to Buckley (2017) featuring climatic conditions with an adventure tourism framework would be effective in managing accommodation for tourists in selected destinations and venues. For instance, adventure tourism can be properly utilised by a selection of destinations of Europe that facilitates adventure for visitors on landscapes, glaciers and Canary Islands. Wang et al. (2018) taking support from proper marketing theory helps adventure tourism to establish successful outcomes and make an increase customer touchpoint. However, the formation of extracurricular activities tends to influence the motives of tourists and ensure visits to countries like Spain, the Netherlands, Norwich to acknowledge enriched culture and heritage. Riemer (2020) explains that the formation of a bucket – list increases influences people to visit and reach to admire destinations for adventure tourists. In addition to this, it has been found that destinations of adventure tourism in the Netherlands attract visitors by ancient canals, acknowledgement of music and festival cultures. Mohamed et al. (2018) state that improvement of functional features in adventure tourism help businesses to gain the loyalty of visitors in a positive way. For instance, veneers in Scotland offer luxury facilities and attract tourists with grand castles followed by adventurous activities for train rides, scuba diving and visiting museums and theatres.
Providence of these types of activities helps in making effective influence over international tourists. Other than this, destinations like France provide paragliding facilities for engaging in adventurous activities and leads to improved businesses for adventure tourism. However, Alwi, Aziz &Mariappan (2018) assert that in-taking of adventurous activities for meeting the demands of visitors lead to increased risk factors for the adventure tourism industry. Therefore, it is required to implement a risk evaluation plan that aids in managing risk factors by ensuring an increase of safety measures for tourists. Neupane (2019) states that the improvement of business functions can be monitored by controlling challenges in a decision-making process. This significantly aided in making sustainable approaches for adventure tourists in business fields. It has been found that profit maximisation in the hospitality sector leads to value for employees’ hard work and working dedication, which helps in analysing and comparing differences between visitors and non-visitors (Adcock, 2016). Another destination is Iceland which focuses on rafting facilities along with hiking, fishing, camping and road-tripping for visitors and helps in analysing features of adventure tourism among people in markets. According to Zaidan (2016), urban civilisation attracts visitors for shopping purposes. This helps in an increase of annual income for nations with higher international visitors. Campos et al. (2018) contradict that involvement of adventure activities lead to a negative impact on natural habitats. Therefore, it requires the proper management of tourism features in destinations and venues. Mandić, Mrnjavac&Kordić (2018) states a presence of a financial budget helps in maintaining activities in adventure tourism. This helps incomprehension that improvement of budgetary plan facilitates better opportunities for maintenance of adventure tourism businesses.
(Source: As inspired by Katsikariet al. 2020)
Adventure travelling refers to the involvement of extracurricular activities during travelling that helps in developing ideas of travelling in unique ways. Presence of adventurous activities like rafting, trekking, swimming, hiking, forest walking, aid towards the formation of an effective form of adventurous travelling. According to Sato et al. (2018), the significance of adventurous travelling majorly depends on decision-making skills and the involvement of self-confidence among travellers. It leads to a development on decision-making effects and focuses on resolving dilemmas that arise prior to the selection of adventurous travelling. Apart from this, it can be stated that rock climbing is considered one of the most attempted activities by tourists for making adventurous travelling manners. Huyen& Nghi (2019), and involvement of skiing, rock climbing, rafting, hiking, types of activities lead to increased satisfaction of travellers in various places. Through means of extracurricular operations lead to providing effective approaches for adventurous travels. In accordance with adventurous travels, it leads to enhancements for tourism industries and helps in the improvement of tourism management. However, it has been noted that providence of adventurous travelling tends to change perspectives of individuals and help in increase of self-motivation.
This helps incomprehension that projection of various outdoor activities help in improving quality of adventurous travels and helps in improving the business of travel industries in a profitable range. Mason, Gos& Moretti (2016) explain that an increase in motivation helps travellers in resolving risk factors and leads to developing behaviour for adventurous travels. Moreover, hard adventurous tourism helps in building a confidence level of travellers in an efficient way.
(Source: As inspired by Tütünkov-Hrisztov, Müller &Molnár, 2020)
The presence of environmental attraction with features of eco-tourism helps in maintaining factors related to the motivation of travelling and ensures to influence visitors for destinations of tourism. Huang, Wu & Shi (2018) tourist motivation emerges by willing full approaches by visitors and eventually helps tourism management to gain successful outcomes. Apart from this, the increase of development in tourist destinations tend to motivate travellers for the selection of specific areas and due to this major selection of area, tourism management improves by gaining loyalty and satisfaction of visitors. Dagustaniet al. (2018) opine that an effect of travel motivation aids in the development of travel experiences for travellers, due to which tourism management gains a profitable outcome. Moreover, tourism motivation improves by loyal and satisfied support from visitors and good quality services provided to visitors help increase customer touchpoints (Raj, 2017). On the other hand, it has been observed that tourism management ensures to take precautionary steps for pregnant visitors and ensures health and safety measures for special cases of visitors.
Tourism motivation gets affected due to the health situations of visitors and tends to affect tourism management. Díaz-Carrión, Vizcaino-Suárez &Gaggiotti (2020) assert that pregnant visitors lead to gain limitations for adventurous travelling and receive a low level of experience in case of adventure. In this manner, the motivation of tourism leads to a reduction in an efficient manner. In this regard, the usage of developed practices needs to be input in tourism management for balancing different types of situations in tourism management. According to Kim & Hall (2019) application of the hedonic motivation model aids in improvement for tourism management and eventually helps in comprehending differences between non-visitors and visitors.
Profile of the adventure tourism industry refers to the exploration of types of activities that tend to provide improvement of time scheduling for spending vacations (Brondoni, 2016). Involvement of climbing, rafting, caving and hiking relates to the improvement of adventurous tourism and eventually provides development outcomes for profiles of adventure tourism industries across nations. According to McKay (2016) projection of leisure and adventurous activities lead to an improved profile of adventure tourism industries in an efficient manner. The adventure tourism industry leads to gain loyalty and ensures to make dynamic changes for mitigation of risk factors in a convenient manner. Giddy (2018) explains the involvement of environmentally stable situations helps in enhancing the tourism industry followed by the rising of tourism motivation among visitors. Thus, this helps in comprehension that geographic conditions along with climatic sustainability of an area determine to provide influencing results in adventure tourism industries. João et al. (2018) explain that the improvement of the adventure tourism industry increases due to an increased level of environmental sustainability and aids in attracting a large number of visitors. Moreover, island destinations are environmentally unsustainable and frequent changes in weather conditions trigger the growth of the adventure tourism industry in these specific areas.
Improvement of certain specifications helps in managing improved techniques for the adventure tourism industry as per requirement. Rebeloet al. (2018) states that regulation of safety measures help in improving serving quality to visitors, which aids in the increase of sales point in adventure tourism industries in a convenient manner. Apart from this, it helps in comprehension that resolving of risk factors help to improve quality of tourism industry a few notches higher. According to Hansen, Fyall&Spyriadis (2020) application of a risk evaluation plan leads to effective changes in the tourism industry. Thus, it helps in apprehension that projection of risk management plan aids in the development of the tourism industry. In this manner, risk-taking activities ten to provide improvement and ensure to maintain good quality for treatment to visitors. Yang, Khoo-Lattimore &Arcodia (2018) explains risk-taking parameters for female visitors and values to indicate profit maximisation for the adventure tourism industry. Other than this, improvement of service quality with an increase of health and safety measures provides improvement to the adventure tourism industry.
Maintenance of tourist destinations with considerations of cleanliness and tidiness ensures to make an efficient form of changes in an adventure tourism industry. Kumarasamy (2018) opine that improvement meeting visitors requirement deals with specifications for future development of adventure tourist industries. It helps in comprehension of improvement of working quality in the adventure tourism industry for better market share and improves the ability to retain in competitive markets for a longer time period. According to Cetin &Yarcan (2017), the adventure tourism industry helps in the comprehension of tourist destinations that lead to attracting tourists across various regions. In this manner, it can be stated that improved quality of services to tourists helps for the development of the adventure tourism industry. Active participation of qualified employees along with the collaboration of senior management facilitates improving opportunities that deal with market sustainability of the adventure tourism industry. Mudzakkiret al. (2018) assert that projection of positive changes in the tourism industry is feasible by applying brain-based learning techniques among employees. This leads to improved business purposes of the adventure industry to fulfil the demands of visitors.
Development of adventure tourism market takes place by improvement of specifications regarding activities that help in targeting audiences in markets. Collaboration of activities like skiing, caving, camping, hiking, rock climbing along with acknowledging cultures, festive celebrations and heritages aids to the promotion of well-known destinations. This helps to make improvements for an adventure tourism market in a convenient way. Buckley (2017) conveys that utilisation of tourism framework aids to provide suitable changes in an adventure tourism market. Along with this, it helps in apprehension that an effective form of planning improves facilities and outcomes towards the adventure tourism market. Contrarily, McKay (2016) explains that analysing weather conditions and the stability of nature tend to provide profitable outcomes for adventure tourism markets.
In this, market activities for adventure tourists provide support to expand in business fields. Kumarasamy (2018) suggests that monitoring and controlling of improved planning lead to making appropriate changes in adventurous tourism sectors. Moreover, the improvement of hospitality sectors leads to beneficial opportunities for visitors to meet vacation objectives and help in gaining the pleasure of adventures in foreign destinations. According to Tapar, Dhaigude& Jawed (2017), improvement in customer experience intends to provide maximum profit margins of adventure tourism in competitive markets. This helps incomprehension that meeting demands of customers related to adventurous activities ensure the loyalty of visitors that strengthens market stability for adventure tourism markets. Badau&Badau (2018) states improvement of the tourism market emerges by making rational activities and application of decision-making techniques. This significantly supports in interpreting efficient forms of changes like promotion of adventure activities based on the education of culture and heritage, which relates to providing effects of urban tourism programs. However, Usamah&Anuar (2017) explains that the projection of youth volunteers help in managing situations for adventure tourism operations in markets. From this, it can be conveyed that the development of operations in tourism helps to fulfil the demands of customers and gain positive outcomes based on the increase in sales. According to Rylance &Spenceley (2017) reduction of economic infrastructure leads to negative impacts and obstructs business growth of adventure tourism in competitive markets.
This helps incomprehension that a lower level of budget in tourism affects activities that provide adventures to visitors and thereby, profit margin reduces. Morong, Kariuki &Bitok (2018) noted that the application of product diversification strategy helps in the apprehension of improvement of activities to meet requirements of visitors in hospitality sectors. It conveys that meeting objectives of customers tend to increase market sustainability of adventure tourism as per requirement. Bidder, (2018) exploration of outdoor activities in large numbers helps to make effective changes for the future development of adventure tourism. In other words, analysis of outdoor activities determines successful factors for tourism businesses in markets. Clinch &Filimonau (2017) asserts that a risk management plan helps in resolving internal issues for maintaining good quality in adventure tourism. Application of risk management plan aids in increasing markets sustainability for adventure tourism businesses.
Management provides a significant contribution towards the improvement of facilities in adventure tourism. Involvement of senior management along with active engagement of employees in hospitality sectors provides improved quality of working techniques that addresses the requirement of visitors. Clinch &Filimonau (2017) explains that improvement of management can be monitored and controlled by evaluating risk matrix plans in adventure tourism. The application of these types of plans helps in providing mitigation steps that ensure further improvement in tourism businesses. Rantala, Rokenes&Valkonen (2018) signify that comprehension of adventurous sports tends to make advancing futures for tourists. Along with this providence of training to employees for tackling these sports improves the quality of adventure tourism. Jermsittiparsert, Joemsittiprasert&Phonwattana (2019) states that maintaining good employment relations with suppliers and investors determine to improve the performance of supply chain management. In this manner, the management of adventure tourism improves by resolving internal issues and complexities.
However, Morakabati, Page & Fletcher (2017) states that improvement of employment relations with stakeholders can be managed by negotiation in adventure tourism. Through the means of negotiation, employment relations between business owners and suppliers enhance and usage of materials in a proper way. Paddison& Walmsley (2018) explains that public management functions can be operated by inputting effective techniques of operation and can be possible by qualified employees in tourism businesses. Thus, it can be comprehended that evaluation of management functions help in improving the service quality of adventure tourism to serve visitors appropriately. Andergassen, Candela &Figini (2017) application of discounts and offers for customers help to manage customer touchpoints with tourism businesses. It helps in comprehension that loyalty programs provided by the management of tourism companies help to influence visitors in a convenient way. Guo & Sun (2016) noted that taking support from planning for the development of tourism organisations leads to maintaining a good quality of management and successfully managing good relationships with visitors. From this, it can be analysed that the application of planning tends to improve the quality of management in a tourism company for longer market sustainability. According to Franzoni&Pelizzari (2016), the presence of weather risk factors affect the growth of the tourism industry and thereby, need to implement weather risk management for resolving environmental issues. This would help in managing the restriction of growth in businesses of adventure tourism. Pikkemaat& Peters (2016) focus on the improvement of management and can be applied by innovation for tourism businesses. In accordance with innovation, adventure tourism businesses would be successful in organised form of management and address queries of visitors.
The emergence of the latest trends in adventure tourism helps to improve quality and manage sustainable features in the marketing of tourism businesses. However, it has been noted that the application of virtual reality tours is one of the latest trends in adventure tourism. According to Palamarova (2018), the incorporation of digitalisation by the improved manner of trends in tourism helps in attracting visitors and improves marketing factors in adventure tourism. This helps in apprehension that digitalisation aids in modernised activities in businesses of tourism management. Another latest trend is cycling which is determined to influence the number of visitors in adventure tourism (Holden, Shipway & Lamont, 2019). In this manner, it can be conveyed that regulation of trends like cycling ensures the fitness of visitors alongside an increase of adventure in tourism. However, Huddart & Stott (2019) noted that natural calamity tends to provide negative impacts on adventure tourism, due to which growth possibilities reduce in business fields. It aids in the providence of trends in adventure tourism and provides an improvement in business approaches. On the other hand, Willer &Lernoud (2019) states that the improvement of the organic agenda helps in the application of the latest trends for working quality in adventure tourism. This signifies that the requirement of activities in a convincing manner help to influence visitors for the adoption of trends like virtual tours in adventure tourism. According to Majeed & Lu (2017), maintenance of destination culture and heritage help to provide acknowledgement to visitors in a convenient manner.
From this, it helps in apprehension that improvement of trends provides an increase of possibilities for adventure tourism in terms of market share. McKellen al. (2017) convey that usage of the latest trends help to modify management in adventure tourism. This enables tourism businesses to gain an increase of competitive advantage in business fields. According to Rate, Moutinho& Ballantyne (2018) application of business trends help to provide positive effects for attracting customers. It significantly helps in meeting the demands of customers and in return, obtains loyalty and satisfaction of visitors. However, Yung & Khoo-Lattimore (2019) states that the use of virtual reality trends focuses on strategic development in businesses of adventure tourism. In this regard, it increases interest among customers and visitors who opt for this type of tourism trend. Song, Li & Cao (2018) assert that incorporation of budgetary plan determines to involve globalised features in adventure tourism. It helps in comprehension that usage of appropriate forms of budget infrastructure tends to improve adventure tourism as per convenience. Filep& Laing (2019) explains that trending direction improves management in adventure tourism. Thus, the application of the latest trends is necessary to increase market sustainability in adventure tourism.
The section focuses on the research methodology and design part of this paper. It covers various facets such as population was chosen, typology of design, selection method adopted, sampling method, data collection modes, data analysis and questionnaire used for the data collecting process. Generally, the strategy is to address different parts of the study smartly and decipherably so that the motive of the research paper is achieved. The research paper is primarily focused on two parts. First, data are collected and analyzed about adventure Tourism from the previous literature review done on the subject. The first section of the paper Primarily discusses Adventure Tourism, the adventure tourism market, Management in adventure tourism, and New global trends in adventure tourism. The first part forms the foundation for secondary data. The later part of the paper involves primary data collection where a survey is created and shared with tourists. By merging primary and secondary data, the insights generated will help to understand the mindset and motivation of tourists towards adventure tourism and also help to understand their approach and preferences while they go on adventure tourism. It also explores the suggestions for improvement of the adventure tourism industry in the world.
Interpretivism is the philosophical stance used in the research. It is also called anti-positivism. It refers to the participation of people in emphasizing social life and their behaviour and nature. It also states that scientific methods and numbers cannot analyse how people feel and behaved. As the research design majorly concentrates on exploring people’s motivation for adventure tourism. Also, their preferences, opinions, habits, beliefs regarding adventure tourism. Interpretivism is used as the philosophical stance for this research paper.
The approach implemented in the research paper is deductive because the methodology is put out to answer the research questions, which are stated in the latter part of this section. And the strategy which is used is surveyed. It is often correlated with the deductive approach. The survey helps in collecting a large amount of data through open and closed-end questions. This strategy helps in generating statistical data.
The research strategy used for the research is a survey questionnaire. The survey is based on a set of 2 qualitative and 10 I-statement questions and 4 demographic questions. The qualitative data are gathered by the two open-ended questions, whereas numbers and figures can characterize the quantitative data. Quantitative questions are generally closed-ended questions whose responses are fixed and do not require additional data. Qualitative questions are normally open-ended questions where the user can provide information/beliefs/opinions. This research paper uses a set of open-ended and I statement questions to achieve the overall aim of the paper, which is to understand the motives, beliefs, preferences of tourists towards adventure tourism.
According to the research onion, a mixed method of choice is being deployed in the research methodology. The paper uses both qualitative and quantitative data to answer the research question better.
For the next research onion layer, the time horizon, Cross-sectional timing is utilized. As the research was conducted over ten weeks period. The focus of the research is on the current situation.
Primary data was gathered through close on-the-ground observation and surveys with the tourists. By understanding the viewpoint of tourists, it helps to understand their motive behind adventure travel and their preferences, beliefs and opinions on adventure tourism, They were the core sources, individual and collective, of the primary data collected for this study, which was used to achieve the overall aim of the research paper.
The main source of secondary data is information that is already accessible in previous literature, articles, national, international organizations, and official reports available in travel and tourism industry magazines.
Numerous modules and techniques were used to gather primary and secondary data to complete the study. As discussed in previous sections, there were several sources to collect secondary data. For primary data, a survey with open-ended and closed-ended questions was shared with tourists.
To understand and reflect on the various aspects related to the adventure tourism market.
To answer this, 12 questions are formed in the form of a survey and distributed to tourists. It is expected to collect 150 respondents.
To understand this one, I-statement questions and one open-ended question are included in the survey.
To answer this, two I statement questions are created in the form of a survey and distributed among tourists.
Three I statement and one open-ended question was included in the survey for tourists.
To answer this question, one open-ended question was included in the survey for tourists.
To validate the authenticity of the analysis, the form was pilot tested to improve the survey form and to ensure respondents will not encounter issues in answering the queries (Saunders et al. 2009). Before delivering the survey form to the targeted respondents, I consulted with and approved by the thesis supervisor once the form was filled in an online survey, collectively it had been sent to a few persons to induce recommendations and comments for later modifications.
Ethical difficulties were treated closely in thought throughout the analysis of the study. Special focus was given to the personal nature of any crucial info achieved within the method of the survey. Whereas seeking the permission of these to be interviewed in advance, they were educated regarding the nature and purpose of the analysis that they were being questioned. Moreover, data gathered from all those interviewed are used cautiously and given due respect.
Data analysis presents a way of collecting data through which adequate data and essential information can be gathered to develop the quality of a research study. Through data analysis, verification of actual and process content can be analysed properly through which reliability of a study can be understood properly. It can develop the process of execution through which quality in the data analysis process can be developed. It can assist in managing data gathering processes through which confidentiality and stability in data collection methods can be maintained properly without facing any issues.
Data analysis processes help in providing a way of organising data collection processes due to which perspectives of participants can be monitored properly. It can allow making proper decisions based on the current situation due to which potentiality and efficiency can be organised for a research study. Secondary data analysis also helps in managing data collection methods by using thematic analysis that can develop the quality of a research study. For this study, the primary data collection method has been used to gather specific information from research participants by understanding their reactions. It can develop the process of data collection methods with the help of taking surveys and several questionnaires. Using the pivot table framework, occurrence and other relative information can be gathered properly due to which reliability and efficiency can be organised within this study. It can develop the process of data collection method due to which validity and reliability processes can be executed properly.
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From this graphical presentation based on adventure tourism opted by lonesome travellers have agreed in major part. Through the help of pivotal surveys, it has been found that there are 5 numbers of participants who have firmly approved that use to travel on adventure trips alone as it is more convenient in comparison to travelling with others. This helps in analysing that across different countries and demographic profiles, major participants have agreed towards alone visiting for adventure tourism. Other than this individual involvement in adventure tourism helps participants in realising different types of activities on their own followed by wildlife tourism, marine tourism and board sports. However, from this pivotal survey, it has been found that countries like India, Germany, France and the Philippines from where participants have agreed that like to travel alone on adventure trips. Additionally, participants have conveyed that effective measures are taken before stepping out for adventure trips alone. Other than this, the survey has helped in analysing that India, Germany, France and the Philippines prefer to travel alone with taking care of all necessities to lead a safe trip and like to experience different activities in adventure tourism.
Taking effective measures for ensuring safe trip alone, 5 major participants who have agreed to travel alone are due to experience broad sports, which also helps in increasing the level of individuality and lonesome travellers do not have to depend on other peoples joining. Thus, it can be stated that people from India, Germany, France and the Philippines prefer to travel alone as it provides boosting of individual experiences with different types of adventures.
Trip with family
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This pivotal survey has helped in analysing preferences of tourist mode of selection for travelling in different destinations across regions. Therefore, this graph represents an interpretation of results based on a selection of adventure trips with families. From this projection of question, it has been found that majorly 5 numbers of participants have agreed to the fact that selection of adventure trips with family members is preferable. Similarly, the application of the pivotal survey method, has guided in acknowledging that most of the participants from India have firmly approved that considering family in adventure trips are preferable. However, involved participants who have preferred to take families on adventure trips pack a first aid box with proper medications to avoid problematic health conditions. Additionally, preferences from participants of India have helped in understanding that nearly around 5 participants like to take adventure trips with family members. Through the help of families, adventure trips taken by participants become more memorable and ensure to maintain safety measures by first aid and necessary medications. From this, it has been understood that different types of adventure activities like wildlife experiences, marine tourism, board sports, heli-skiing and others would be considered majorly by participants who like to travel with families.
This graphical representation has helped in analysing that adventure trips are often taken by participants who prefer to travel with families and aims to participate in different adventure travelling activities to gain relaxing and enchanting experiences.
Trip with friends
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This graph comes up with an annotation on the selection of adventure trips with friends in terms of experiencing different activities. From this pivotal survey method, it can be analysed that major participants who have firmly approved of this fact that adventure trips with friends are preferable from countries like India, Netherlands and France. Thus, this helps in understanding that the involvement of friends in adventure tourism makes it memorable and helps in enjoying visitors. Along with this, a collaboration of adventure trips with friends helps in tourism industries to earn profitable income as propositions of different board sports and adventurous games help in attracting targeted audiences across regions. As compared to India, Netherlands and France, Egypt comes in fourth place in terms of selection of adventure trips with friends. For instance, the selection of adventure trips leads to present wildlife tourism, where visitors with friends would be able to experience bird watching, visiting zoological gardens, fishing, hunting along experiencing the ecstatic beauty of nature. In this manner, selections of adventure trips, which can be accompanied by friends have been majorly in demand and have been confirmed by participants from India, Netherlands, France and Egypt as per global survey analysis. Additionally, specifications provided by marine adventure activities would be helpful in increasing probability, which has been already selected by participants to take adventure trips with friends.
Trip with travelling groups
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This graphical presentation determines to provide information regarding the selection of adventure trips with travel groups and this has been firmly approved by five numbers of participants in this pivotal form of survey. In this projection of pivotal form of survey method, it has been understood that Netherlands and India come up with more number of visitors who chose to travel with travel groups. In this manner, it becomes helpful for participants to travel with travelling groups, which ensures to follow proper norms and guidelines in a convenient way. Other than this, interpretation of these results have helped in analysing that selection of adventure trips with travelling agents leads to improved business conditions of tourism sectors in different markets in a significant way. Application of this type of pivotal survey method has helped in managing and gaining knowledge related to a visiting place as it provides a significant collaboration of travellers in adventure trips. Thus, it can be stated that selection of adventure trips with travelling groups help in resolving issues as it comes up with full preparation regarding any kind of issues on the path of travelling. Therefore, participants from the Netherlands seem to prefer visiting with travelling groups on adventure trips. Additionally, it ensures to improve services of adventure trips as the presence of travelling groups and visitors review quality and experiences, upon which future growth of tourism businesses directly depends.
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Gaining experiences can help people to understand required services or operations within adventurous tourism. These experiences can allow people to manage their individual knowledge due to which clarity and stability in their life events within tourism can be executed properly. It can assist in managing attractive and risk-taking adventurous sports through which people can easily accept this kind of sports for their enjoyment. Most of the people in India, Germany and the Philippines are required to do several sports and tourism events for their personal benefits due to which they can satisfy their needs without facing any issues. The people belong from 18-35 years to perform adventurous sports and tourism activities to satisfy their needs. It can allow them to manage their self activities due to which they are able to improve their tourism capabilities through which potentiality and structure in execution can be developed properly. It can also develop the process of acknowledging management ways of adventurous tourism and sports events.
Apart from these, people in India, Germany and the Philippines prefer to use experience before starting their journey due to which they can take proper precautions. They can also accomplish their requirements by satisfying their demands and they can easily reach their destination without facing any issues. It can develop the process of execution through which potentiality and accuracy level can be managed successfully without facing any complex situations in adventurous sports or tourism industries.
Gathering nature and adventure experiences
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Gathering nature and adventure experiences can assist in improving knowledge and stability in the physical environment for people. It can allow people to develop their environmental knowledge and also improve physical and mental strengths without facing any issues. It can organise the structure due to which efficiency and culture can be organised properly. This tourism activity is one of the attractive activities through which people can easily accept this kind of experience for their enjoyment. Most of the people in the Philippines and Germany are required to experience this kind of tourism activities to maintain personal benefits due to which they can satisfy their needs without facing any issues. The people belong from 19-26 years to perform this adventurous activity to satisfy their needs. It can improve the processing operations and also allow people to take part in adventurous sports without any hesitation. Therefore, people can easily perform their operational and tourism-related tasks without having any issues.
On the other hand, people in the Philippines and Germany have shared that they prefer to analyse and experience nature energy during adventure tourism to understand environmental conditions. It can bring stability due to which effectiveness and other operations regarding nature can be executed properly without facing any difficulties. It can organise the situations and also improve knowledge and understanding skills. Therefore, people can easily take proper decisions and maintain the flow of operations through which potentiality and accuracy in service operations within adventure tourism can be executed properly. It can also generate a sequence for adventurous people due to which structure in performance and adventure can be developed within adventurous tourism.
Usage of Social media for Adventure tourism
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Social media is one of the key methods for sharing data communication through which people can easily share quality information with their subordinates to manage information collection processes. Most of the people in India and Germany have used social media to gather specific information about tourism activities and take proper measures to manage these activities. It can assist in improving the processing structure of adventure tourism due to which stability and accuracy can be arranged properly without facing any issues. People are required to make proper decisions for their personal benefits due to which they can satisfy their needs without facing any issues. The people belong from 19-to 35 years who are responsible for using social media to gather specific information. It can allow people to manage their personal needs and they can also gather information from other people using this communication medium to maintain the flow of execution without facing any issues in this modern world scenario.
Apart from this, from this pivot table, it has been acknowledged that Indian and German people are preferred to use social media to gather information and perform activities depending on requirements. It can allow tourism industries to provide accurate information within social media to improve the connection between tourists and tourism industries. It can improve the process of execution through which effectiveness and other operations can be executed within adventure tourism.
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Adventure tourism is one of the attractive activities within this modern world through which people can easily accept this kind of sport for their enjoyment. Most of the people in several countries are required to take part in this tour to do some adventure activities due to which it can also allow people to step outside their comfort zone. The people belong from 18-29 years who can take part in this event to manage their satisfaction process through which they can showcase their physical and special skills to perform adventure tourism. It includes several sports or activities such as scuba diving, skydiving, hill climbing and several others. Through these activities, people in several countries can showcase their talents without any hesitations.
From the above pivot table, it has been understood that most of the people in Germany, India and the United States are responsible for taking part in adventurous tourism to manage their personal activities. Through this information, it has been explained that people in these countries have physical strengths and special skills through which they can easily achieve their goals and other crucial activities. The country’s government can also take proper measures in providing these facilities so that they can take part in adventurous sports to showcase their special skills and abilities. It can develop the process of execution due to which performance in adventure tourism and performance can be executed efficiently within tourism industries as well. It can assist in making benefits due to which stability and accuracy in service operations can be maintained properly without facing any issues.
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Wildlife is one of the attractive adventurous tourism through which people can easily accept this kind of adventure for their enjoyment. Most of the people in several countries are required to do wildlife adventures for their personal benefits due to which they can satisfy their needs without facing any issues. The people belong from 24-25 years to perform this adventurous tourism to satisfy their needs. Through this adventure tourism, people can analyse wildlife events due to which they can recognise the requirements of wild animals. Therefore, they can enjoy these events without facing any issues. It can develop knowledge of people after taking part in this wildlife tourism.
From this pivot table, it has been analysed that most people are expected to enjoy wildlife adventure. Therefore, wildlife forest rangers are expected to allow tourists to see the wild animals satisfy their needs due to which efficiency and satisfaction policies can be organised properly that improve wildlife tourism industries as well. It can develop morality for people due to whom they can easily maintain their satisfaction process by accomplishing all needs and requirements within wildlife experiences.
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River rafting is one of the attractive and risk-taking adventurous sports through which people can easily accept this kind of sport for their enjoyment. Most of the people in India are required to do river rafting for their personal benefits due to which they can satisfy their needs without facing any issues. The people belong from 26 years to perform this adventurous sport to satisfy their needs. The tourism industry is expected to understand the requirements of their participants and they can provide essential support to manage their sports-related activities. It can allow people to enjoy marine life and take risks for enjoying these water sports due to which they can easily accomplish their satisfaction process without facing any issues.
Through this reaction, it has been acknowledged that people in other countries have enjoyed this sports event however, in India; the opportunity of this sport is very less. Therefore, people in this country are required to take part in these water sports without facing any issues. It can assist in managing all kinds of operations regarding this event due to which potentiality and accuracy can be managed properly. It can be beneficial for developing the quality of this research study as well.
From the above information, it has been discussed that most of the people loved to travel and enjoy adventure tourism through which tourism industry can develop their economic condition by providing reliable services. As followed by Rantala, Rokenes & Valkonen (2018), tourism industries are responsible for delivering adequate adventure sports to their customers depending on their requirements to satisfy their needs. It can assist in motivating people after taking their tourism-related services through which customer rate and revenue stream can be increased within tourism industries. From this data collection method, it has also been analysed that most people are preferred to go alone in adventure sports.
Most of the people can enjoy their tourism activities while being alone through which they can experience many tourism-related activities through which effectiveness in adventure tourism among those people can be developed as well. Moreover, it has been also identified that most of the male people have preferred to go alone rather than female as most of the females have decided to go with their friends to enjoy their life events. According to Rickly & Vidon (2017), it can be beneficial for them to adventure sports and other tourism-related activities that include skydiving, water sports, wildlife, board sports and several others. It can be helpful for everyone to enjoy wildlife and marine tourism with the help of tourism industries.
On the other hand, there are some people who loved to go on a trip with their friends and maintain a sustainable environment among them. Through this decision, they are able to share their individual thoughts and they can easily understand each other’s requirements and provide support towards each other by managing tourism-related operations. It can also develop the process of communication due to which they can gather more knowledge about adventure sports and other activities. Moreover, most of the people belonged from 16 to 31 years due to which they are able to take part in any kind of sports events without facing any issues. It can assist in managing tourism-related operations through which tourism-related activities and other critical issues within tourism industries can be avoided without facing any issues.
Apart from these, it has been analysed that most participants in this 21st century are preferred to use social media to gather specific information about adventure sports. In the words of Giddy (2018), it can be beneficial for participants that they can understand the provided services and they can take their required services according to their demands. It can be beneficial for arranging segmentation among them due to which stability and accuracy in data collection methods can be developed as well. It can also bring possible and positive outcomes depending on requirements. It can also manage stability in data collection and data gathering processes as well within this study.
Through the assistance of primary data collection methods, adequate information from the perspective of participants can help in understanding their views on adventure sports. It can help in organising the structure of data collection and data management processes due to which clarity and sustainability in data collection operations can be organised. As influenced by Vass, Rigby & Payne (2017), through surveys, positive and negative analyses have been gathered that can help in analysing critical thoughts of every participant. It can assist in improving the quality and structure of this study due to which potentiality and accuracy level can be developed as well. Therefore, it can give opportunities for tourism industries to maintain the rights of their tourists by providing care and services. It can assist in improving the quality and also maintain the sequence of data processing within this study.
From the above study, it has been understood that using primary data collection methods, this research study can present a structural outcome depending on requirements. Therefore, learners are able to understand the actual requirements of this study with respect to the data analysis process. Using pivot tables, all statistical information can be analysed through which assumptions and another execution rate can be understood. Therefore, this research study can deliver accurate data and other information without facing any issues that can assist in managing all kinds of information due to which stability and accuracy within this research study can be organised properly. It can assist in developing the sequential activities due to which the quality and structure of this study can be organised properly without facing any issues. Through adventurous tourism, people can understand the process of managing environmental sustainability due to which efficiency and clarity in tourism operations can be executed properly. It can develop the sequential outcome due to which all types of adventure sports are enjoyable for people in this modern world.
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