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Author viewpoint: The viewpoint of the author is to focus on the clinical evaluations for the needle size fat.

Purpose of the study: The investigation is about the technique to focus on how 204 injection aspiration yields no return of blood. The current practice is based on instructing patients with self-administration of insulin who tend to eliminate the aspiration (Peragallo-Dittko, 1995). The inadvertent intramuscular injection is documented with the layer of subcutaneous fat tissue mainly at the different injection sites with thinning some people with diabetes. 

Usefulness or Limitation: The research is about the subcutaneous fat layer thickness which is then related to the needle placement. After a proper administering of the dose of insulin, the absorption rate generally depends on the site of injection with skinfold thickness (Peragallo-Ditko. 1995). The elimination is about how absorption rate is influenced that affects diffusion conditions with blood flow like the ambient temperature or any type of orthostatic changes, smoking, or the massage. It is also seen that the educator of diabetes can provide complete guidance for the injection site and technique. 

Evaluation of Findings

As per the study, the sample presented the symmetrical distribution of the lean and the other obese subjects. (Keen, 1996) The study includes the absence of the returning of blood which indicates that the correct needle placement is needed. Their results are mainly about aspiration which is not a reliable indicator for the correct placement of the needle. The other is that there is no evidence that can be seen with aspiration mainly including the blood returns that also eliminates any possibility which relates to the injection of intramuscular into the blood vessel of non-subcutaneous. 


Peragallo-Dittko, V. (1995). Aspiration of the subcutaneous insulin injection: clinical evaluation of needle size and amount of subcutaneous fat. The Diabetes Educator21(4), 291-296.

Keen, M. F. (1986). Comparison of intramuscular injection techniques to reduce site discomfort and lesions. Nursing Research35(4), 207-210.

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