Applicability of Hofstede’s cross-culturally study model in Individual countries (Multinational firms)

Posted on April 17, 2022 by Cheapest Assignment

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 The world has been becoming integrated at an increasing rate. This has led to the use and application of the word “globalization” or “global” in the management disciplines right from marketing to managerial economics to the management of information systems. Globalization has posed significant implications for the business of any kind of business organization by enhancing the competitiveness in the market which further leads to t eh restructuring of the organizational boundaries. This has also been creating new and innovative challenges for the managers who happen to deal with various international alliances and subsidiaries and multinational companies (Barbarossa, et al., 2015). 

International Marketing

Globalization and mobility of business

Basfirinci & Mitra said that due to increased globalization and mobility of business, business organizations are facing varying challenges regarding the management of a workforce that happen to be culturally diverse. There has been increasing in the transaction of business with the rise of the globalization concept. Every culture and country has its specific style of work. This enforces the business organizations in different industries to manage and deal with the human resource accordingly (Basfirinci & Mitra, 2015). 

The employees working in varying business organizations also happen to have various sets of ideas, assumptions, beliefs, and values. It denotes that business organizations have to deal with the management of a human resource that has different values of work, behavior, and attitudes. To maximize the capabilities of cross-cultural management, business organizations require to gain comprehension of how people in various cultural settings would react to the same norms within their specific functions. It can lead to being useful in regards to understanding the influence of a broad range of variables related to cross-cultural human resource management along with devising practical tools for training and induction for employees. 

Extended Dissertation Topic & Outline / Plan

Different cultural researchers have been trying to establish associations between the ideas of culture like Hofstede. As per Olavarría-Jaraba, et al., (2018), the association between the management of human resources and culture can be identified in the definition of management of human resources which seems to pertain to project a distinctive approach for management of employment that seeks to achieve high competitive advantage (Olavarría-Jaraba, et al., 2018). This research proposal is oriented toward identifying the applicability of Hofstede’s cultural study model in individual countries. 

 Research questions 

 The research questions that have to be included in the research study are as follows:

  1. By using various aspects of Hofstede frameworks, are there any significant variations in the scores of performance in the business organizations in relative countries?
  2. Is there any variation existing in the extent of application of Hofstede’s frameworks of the cross-cultural model of study?
  3. What is the extent of difference in values that are related to work in cross-cultural business existing in multinational companies? 
  4. How do the countries having individualistic frameworks accept the collectivist model of business in the cross-countries business scenario?

Figure 1: Hofstede’s Framework


The hypotheses that are to be taken into consideration for the conduction of the research study are mentioned below:

  1.  The cross-cultural model of Hofstede is very much applicable in individual countries. 

The cross-cultural model of Hofstede has been projected as universality which relates to application in a broad range of aspects when related to leadership. The issues in leadership in the varying multinational business organization seem to get resolution with the application of Hofstede’s cross-cultural model. Managers in varying business organizations that are multinational appear to encounter cultural differences regularly. This seems to interfere with the completion of various projects successfully. According to Rui & Stefanone, there has been evidence of the suitability of the frameworks regarding cultural aspects that is very relevant in this kind of scenario (Rui & Stefanone, 2013). It has to be identified that the common issues in business conduction in multinational companies happen to vary from one country to another. This might pertain to the areas of inequality in society, inclusive of the relationship with organizational authority, the association between group and individual, the concept of feminism, and masculinity. It also appears that the ways of handling uncertainty in the business organizations play a significant role in business conduction which also happens to vary from one country to another. These aspects seem to be related to the controlling of expression and aggression of emotions by the human resources which again might vary from one country to another and from one culture to another (Venaik & Brewer, 2013). 

Figure 2: Cross Culture

Advantages And Disadvantages Of Using Social Media In Business

  • The cross-cultural model of Hofstede is not applicable in individual countries. 

Multinational companies in various industries functioning in different countries might have certain specified codes and regulations for dealing with issues arising in the management of human resources. This might not be resonating with the frameworks laid by Hofstede. The applicability of the cross-cultural study model might not seem appropriate for integration in a business organization operating a business in various countries and markets (Olavarría-Jaraba, et al., 2018). 


Research Methodology

The research methodology that will be used for researching this subject would encompass both qualitative and quantitative research methodology. This will further include the primary research and secondary research data collection method. There will be the use of sampling and instrument data collection methods. However, priority will be given to the qualitative data collection method which would include the conduction of one–on–one interview of the managers in various departments of the business organizations operating in different countries (Barbarossa, et al., 2015). There will be the conduction of surveys in which data will be collected from the employees, managers, and other individuals associated with the multinational business organizations. The survey will be conducted in every department of the multinational organization to obtain an accurate and wide variety of information. This will increase the accuracy of the data that will be obtained for the research study. The method of the questionnaire will be used which will be a part of the survey data collection. There will be the distribution of the printed questionnaire for the laborers who have ground work in the multinational business organization (Olavarría-Jaraba, et al., 2018). 

The prime conduction of surveys will be conducted by sending emails that would have questionnaires containing a wide range of questions regarding the matter. These emails will be sent to the managers of all departments in the business organizations conducting business operations in various countries. The questionnaires will then be distributed or passed to all the employees right by the managers of all departments. 

The responses will be collected by the managers in the same questionnaires from the employees of the respective departments. These responses will be then passed to the researchers. All the results that will be obtained from the questionnaire will be transferred to assessments forms that will be compatible with the computer (Venaik & Brewer, 2013). 

Unit 3 Human Resource Management Sample

This way, the outcomes of the questionnaire method will be processed into the computerized system and the outcomes will be presented in the digital format of Excel. The results of the research questionnaire will be directly made to be available as an Excel file of the readable versions of the computer to get one file that would be inclusive of all results (Olavarría-Jaraba, et al., 2018). Further ¸there will be a screening procedure conducted for the obtained data and results which determine the authenticity of the data collected through various methods. In the case of missing values, the respective response will be discarded immediately without any bias. This will provide highly authentic data. 


Barbarossa, C., Beckmann, S.C., De Pelsmacker, P., Moons, I. and Gwozdz, W., 2015. A self-identity-based model of electric car adoption intention: a cross-cultural comparative study. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 42, pp.149-160.

Basfirinci, C. and Mitra, A., 2015. A cross-cultural investigation of airlines’ service quality through integration of Servqual and the Kano model. Journal of Air Transport Management, 42, pp.239-248.

Olavarría-Jaraba, A., Cambra-Fierro, J.J., Centeno, E. and Vázquez-Carrasco, R., 2018. Relationship quality as an antecedent of customer relationship proneness: A cross-cultural study between Spain and Mexico. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 42, pp.78-87.

Rui, J. and Stefanone, M.A., 2013. Strategic self-presentation online: A cross-cultural study. Computers in Human Behavior, 29(1), pp.110-118.

Venaik, S. and Brewer, P., 2013. Critical issues in the Hofstede and GLOBE national culture models. International Marketing Review, 30(5), pp.469-482.


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