Poliovirus also refers to us as poliomyelitis is caused by a serotype of species Enterovirus, a family of Picornaviridae. Poliovirus causes poliomyelitis. Poliovirus is composed of an RNA genome and protein capsid. Karl Landsteiner and Erwin Popper were the first people who isolated poliovirus in 1909. it is one of the well-characterized viruses that is a very useful model system in understanding RNA viruses biology. Implications of the evidence throughout the article give a clear distinction of f-IPV with full-dose IPV as a primary infant’s immunization against poliovirus. It confirms that it is possible to confer immunogenicity using f-IPV doses.
This article addresses the three types of poliovirus and their eradication through the use of IPV as the only immunity against the virus. On September 20 in the year 2015 was the time eradication of these viruses especially type 2 was declared while type 3 was declared later on October 17, 2019. It is has been reported that type 1 poliovirus has not been reported again since 2012 in most of the countries of the world, as only reported cases are in Afghanistan (14 cases in the year 2017, 21 cases in 2018 29 cases in 2019, and 47 cases to date in 2020) also in Pakistan with the following statistics ( 8 cases in 2018, 12 cases in 2018, 147 cases in 2019, and 73 cases to date in 2020). In the year 2016 may the World Health Organisation come up with a strategic group of experts that recommended the withdrawal from all uses of type 2 poliovirus vaccine. This group of experts has further recommended the withdrawal of all the OPV, following the declaration the eradication is believed to necessitate the rise in uses of IPV, and f-IPV has been the sole source of poliovirus immunity for the infants. Although switching from OPV to IPV is projected to be difficult for most of the regions due to the cost and supply of IPV.
man enterovirus of a family called Picornaviridae. It is composed of a one-stranded, positive-sense RNA genome and a protein capsid. Poliomyelitis carry is antigenically distinct serotypes. This virus is communicable, it can be transferred from one person to person by means of oral contact with the faecal or secretion materials from infected persons. Asymptomatic viral replication is one of the most poliovirus infections that is limited to the alimentary tract. However, during the period where signs and symptoms appear, around 24% of the infections develop signs that are clinical such as sore throat and headache that is a small illness, and fever. Poliovirus can strike a person of all ages although mostly affect young children. This virus affects the brain stem motor neuron, hence causing difficulties in breathing, swallowing, and speaking as well. Due to this and also lack of respiratory support may lead to death.
Polio victims do not display any symptoms and they do not become noticeable easily, however, when the symptoms appear they display the sign and symptoms differ depending on the type of polio. We have these symptoms as non-paralytic or abortive polio and Paralytic polio that the severe type. Abortive poliomyelitis can lead to flu-like symptoms, fever sore throat, headache, vomiting, fatigue, back and neck pain, poliovirus causes an infection of membranes that surrounds the brain, these infections are referred to as meningitis. Paralytic polio symptoms include the following a loss of muscle reflexes, severe muscle pain and spasms, floppy limbs on one side of the body or loss of limp. This type can as well be classified as; Spinal polio as it affects neurons motor in the spinal cord that leads to arm and leg paralysing, and also can lead to problems in breathing. Bulbar polio affects the neurons responsible for taste sight breathing and swallowing. Bulbospinal polio is characterized by both spinal and bulbar polio. Some of the complications and post-polio syndrome are as follows; pain in the muscles and in the joints, a weakness that is slowly progressive, concentration, and memory difficulties. Polio can be diagnosed by first performing laboratory tests to examine secretions from the throat, samples of stools and cerebrospinal fluid.