BSBPMG637 Engage in Collaborative Alliances

Posted on March 2, 2023 by Cheapest Assignment

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CNA632 LEARNING AND TEACHING IN HEALTHCARE SETTINGS

Task 2 – Identify opportunities for and establish collaborative agreements

Task summary and instructions

What is this assessment task about? You are a change management practitioner contracted by MMI Professional Education as Program Manager.

The Program will help the company realise the following strategic objectives:

• To position the company as a leader for quality business education in Australia within the next three years
• To increase revenue by 10% annually for the next 3 years
• To increase profits by 10% annually for the next 3 years
• To position the company as a leader for quality business education in Australia within the next three years
• To expand operations to Sydney, where the company has experienced a high increase in demand for corporate training. This will be achieved by opening a campus in Sydney

The projects within the Program are:

• Open a campus in Sydney
• Brand empowerment
• Introduce two new accredited courses, Diploma of Leadership and Management and the Advanced Diploma of Program Management, to offer to corporate clients

As part of your role as Program Manager, you are required to:

• Identify opportunities for collaboration with external companies or between organisational departments to support the realisation of program benefits
• Develop a collaborative alliance
• Establish collaborative agreements
• Support the evolution of collaborative agreements

This Task focuses on the first two points.

The program board includes:
o Ms Francis Green – Executive Director
o Mr Eli Brown – Non-executive Director
o Mr Leonard Black – CFO

The Program Sponsor is Taylor Magenta – Non- executive Director.

The trainer and assessor will play the role of the Program Sponsor in simulated work conditions.
Consult with them as required.

The trainer and assessor, in their role as Program Sponsor, will provide feedback on how collaborative alliances were managed for the program. This feedback will be provided on the Marking Sheet in Task 3.

This task comprises of the following assessment methods:
o Product-based ☒
o Direct observation of Role-Play ☒
o Case Study ☐
o Other (specify) ☐

It has been designed to evaluate your ability to/competency in:

• Identify and evaluate opportunities for collaborative alliances according to organisational and program objectives
• Identify and evaluate potential collaborators according to organisational policies
• Initiate and develop relationships with potential collaborators according to organisational policies and procedures.
• Initiate, negotiate, agree and document a collaborative approach with parties which adhere to organisational policies and relevant legal requirements
• Approve and review each formal agreement to ensure continuation of envisaged value and to identify potential need for changes and additions according to organisational policies and procedures
• Develop collaboration plans for each agreement to support implementation

Your assessor will be looking for demonstrated evidence of your competency in the above.

You are required to address the following:
• Task 2.1 Identify opportunities for collaboration
o Determine one opportunity of collaborative alliances for the program.
o Identify and shortlist two potential alliances and develop a report for each
• Task 2.2 Initiate and develop relationships with the potential collaborator
o Develop a planning to initiate and shape the working relationship with the preferred collaborator
o Prepare and submit a sample document used to approach and/or develop the work relationship with the potential collaborator.
• Task 2.3 Develop a collaborative agreement and approach
o Develop an MOU and a plan for collaboration
• Task 2.4 Negotiate and finalise the MOU and the Collaboration Plan
o Perform a Role-Play to present the MOU, the collaboration plan and negotiate their terms.

Task 2.3 Develop a collaborative agreement and approach

  1. MOU

Develop an MOU (template 3), and a plan for collaboration (Template 4).

Create an MOU for the collaborative alliance. The MOU must adhere to organizational policies and relevant legal requirements.

Use the template below and follow the instructions. Refer to the Learning Material to help you create the MOU, and consult with the Program Sponsor (played by the trainer and assessor in simulated work conditions).

Template 3 -MOU

MOU
Date 14.11.2022
Partner 1’s details Mark Jensen (Supplier)
Partner 2’s details William Joseph (Shareholder)
Purpose To create a powerful collaborative alliance.
Objectives of the collaborative alliance

 

(3-4)

To create new avenues for the diversification, opening of new markets, reduction of project related risks and to stimulate the executive thinking in bringing up the management groups.
Scope of the collaborative alliance

(30-50 words)

The scope is to clear the relationship between two firms who have mutula interests in which one firm can choose which one to include for thr alliance and the other one to exclude affecting the relaization of common benefits for both the parties.
Period of collaboration 3 weeks
Governance

(40-80 words)

The collaboration assist the policymakers to target and identify the problems in the target market and to achieve the stakeholder agreement to accept the directions and decisions over the time period.
Confidentiality

(40-80 words)

It has to be ensured that the onfidentiality policy extend to the partners, and to implement the best practice for the IT security patches. The partners include vendors, contractors and funders.
partners
Financial commitment

(40-80 words)

The pledge has been taken to meet the certain expenses in the future. It involves the insurance, tax bills, utilities and loan repayments. The formation of international relationhsips, creating agreed, shared and ground rules were also created. The other factors also involve the community and stakeholder engagement.
Roles and responsibilities

(50-100 words)

To provide edit rights to the sections from the profile of a certain idea in which the user is added as a collaborator.

To adopt the roles and responsibilities in pursuit of the team goals.

To pomote face to face promotive interaction and to consider the individual accountability to the stakeholders.

To bring positive interdependence into the union of stakeholders.

Resources

(50-100 words)

Use of software such as Dapulse, Proodhub, Trello and Wimi.
Communication and information sharing

(40-80 words)

The strategic information sharing, social information sharing, directive information sharing, paradigmatic problem solving all have been considered.
Review and Evaluation’

(40-80 words)

Based on the operational performance, the financial contribution of the alliance based on the financial perspective has been measured. Also, the customer loyalty, satisfaction, associate’s health and loyalty were also been measured up. On the other hand, SNA has been used to assess the degree in which the goals of the collaboration has been achieved building stronger and dutrable relationships.
Termination

(40-80 words)

It refers to the failure of business, irresolvable conflict among the partners and the shutdown of alliances over the time period. The partner firms has changed the strategic focus to realign the risk levels and other goals. This further leads to the alliance dissolution over the time period.
  1. Collaboration Plan

Create a high-level collaboration plan- to be agreed upon by both parties- to support the implementation, review and evaluation of the agreement.

Use the template below and follow the instructions.

Template 4 -Collaboration Plan

Collaboration Plan
Action Plan

 

Develop an action plan for implementation (5-7 key actions/tasks)

Action Schedule Roles and Responsibilities
Example:

Prepare MOU and negotiate.

Example:

First week of April 20XX

Example:

Program Manager with support from legal department.

Establish broad goals to address the issues First week of January The program manager would contact with the vendors directly.
Develop criteria to guide the selection of strategies Third week of December The collaborators would analaye the traffic generated from the social media.
Encouragement of MOA to formalize and accept the responsibility to implement the action plan. Second week of January The board would evaluate the key performance indicators (KPIs) and ratio metrics within the financial management.
Preparing final document to summarize the process in the collaboration group. Fourth week of January The analyst would collect, analyse and measure the performance and would prepare the report. Thereby, the report would be presented to the supervision managers.
Training Purpose Budget
Example:

Online training.

Example:

Induct collaborator on SOP for X process.

Example:

$ 150 to develop online training.

Online training To deliver content to make the learner accomplish the course objective. $130
Live workshops To inspire the participants to explore and illustrate the actual process practice. $150
Communication seminars To enable the respondents to communicate with the respondents in improving the verbal and non verbal communication style. $115
Information management

Summarise how data and information will be collected, recorded and disseminated during the collaboration. (40-80 words)

The data dissemination comprises of transmitting and distributing the statistical data to the users. Also, the paper publications, electronic format and files available to the authorised users are also considered. The methods such as web scrapping, and other combination approaches had also been considered to collect and analyse the data and information.
Technology

Identify technology (systems, apps, for example) that will be used to implement and maintain the collaboration. (30-50 words)

The video conferencing Capabilities, document sharing software and sharing of digital whiteboards review and edit the information and data has been considered in a simultaneous manner.
Resource Management

 

Who is in charge of managing resources, and how the resources will be utilised? Outline a strategy for each type of resource that will be utilised when implementing the agreement. 3-4 types of resources must be covered.

Resource Type Management Strategy
Human Resources Porviding security to the employees
Physical Resources

(Example: Office space, equipment etc..)

To monitor the planned Vs actual utilization of the physical resources such as office space and other office equipments.
Services

(Example: IT)

Encouragement of feedback to provide for the employees, persoanlizing the customer experience and to empower the employees.
Software To use the softwares such as Cascasde, MPOWR and Mooncamp to increase the efficiency of the collaboration plan.
Other
Communication and engagement strategy

 

Outline the communication and engagement strategy.

Key communication needs, media to use, and frequency.

Meeting – purpose, frequency, attendees.

(80-120 words)

The social media channels such as Facebook, LinkedIn and Instagram must be used to communicate the improvement in work and facilitating the communication method for the audiences identified. The contextual, enagemnet and emotional engagement also need to be considered through which the organizational strategy, personalization of interactions and taking up a social approach can be broadly defined. To undertake this, the full spectrum of communication skills, encouraging the participation in focus oriented organizations along with providing free benefits to the users. While undertaking the engagement strategy, the conversations, campaigns and channels need to be considered with the right tools and right mindset.
Enquiry management process

Summarise the enquiry process.

This is particularly important at the beginning of the implementation to address issues and clarify any question from staff.

(40-80 words)

The experts have assigned the queries, to increase the chances of positive outcome. It also ensured the person responding to better support every colleagues and other community leaders. This allows the service providers to create an organised commitment to build a successful collaboration. It also includes the places to discuss the issues to address the mission statements and other action steps.
Issue management process

 

Summarise how issues will be dealt with, how issues are logged, assessed, escalated- if needed- and resolved.

(40-80 words)

The four step in the issue management process is to identify and record issues, determine the impact and to prioritize the issues and along with this, the plan must be executed to resolve the issues based on the status along the way.  Along with this, the potential issues are identified, setting up the priorities, developing the response and to monitor the issues in the best possible way.
KPIs

 

Determine and list the  KPIs for the collaborative alliance against the objectives of the agreement (4-5 KPIs)

The KPIs are as follows:

a.     Customer acquisition cost

b.     Revenue per FTE

c.      Return on assets or ROA

d.     Client retention rate

Progress report

Outline the process for progress reporting. Progress reporting (types, formats, responsibility to develop the progress reporting, frequency, medium to disseminate the reporting)

(50-100 words)

The progress report had been treated like Q&A session and to include the questions, problems and plans. It also included the questions on the problems, plans and dedicated progress to lead the meaningful answers with the necessary details. However, the section headings has been further used to make the writing and reading more simpler to provide valuable information about the progress. With the help of ScrumGenius, the report templates had been structured to describe the key details about the aspects within the project.
Change management

Summarise the change management process (how requests for change are logged, submitted and to whom, then revised, escalated- if necessary- and approved and implemented)

(50-100 words)

The change management process has been considered wth preparing the organization to change, crafting the vision and plan for change management. The third step which was included was to implement the changes, embed the changes within the company. The final step is to review the progress and to analyse the results in the most comprehensive manner, While considering these activities, it was also essential to establish new benchmarks and establishing new technology into the busness practices.
Consultation and feedback

 

Summarise the consultation and feedback process (how parties are consulted; and how feedback is sought and analysed).

(50-100 words)

The first step involved the identification of priority issues in conducting the stakeholder analysis. It has been ensured that the consultation plan is prepared ensuring prior information dissemination and maintaining the continuous stakeholder enagement. The employees had been provided with the opportunit to present the views in response to the information and to provide a genuine consideration of the employee views prior to the final implementation of the decision.
Review

 

Outline the process to review the agreement.

(50-100 words)

To review the assignment, the critical clauses are well focused upon, review of the default terms and agreements are also focused upon. The termination and renewal provisions are further carefully read and the remedies provisions has been understood in key detail. The contarct’s action plan had been critically reviewed to ensure that the deal terms are well documented. As the team submitted the final version of the review document, the team brought the elements togteher and the submission had been approved.

Task 2.4 Negotiate and finalise the MOU and the Collaboration Plan

Schedule a time with the trainer and assessor in week 4 of class to:

  • Present the MOU that you have developed
  • Negotiate the collaborative approach
  • Negotiate the terms of the MOU and the collaboration plan
  • Present the collaboration plan
  • Collect feedback from pertinent stakeholders
  • Confirm and finalise the agreement and the plan

A classmate will play the role of the representative of the collaborative ally.

Before the meeting (Role-Play)

  • Make sure that the MOU and the collaboration plan are ready
  • Prepare to present
  • Prepare to negotiate
  • Consider what policies and procedures, and legal requirements may apply

During the meetingTASKS TO DO DURING ROLE PLAY (TEMPLATE 3 AND 4)

  • Discuss the collaborative approach
  • Present the MOU
  • Present the collaboration plan
  • Seek feedback from the ally
  • Answer questions and provide the required information
  • Negotiate the terms of the agreement on both documents
  • Reach an agreement

After the meeting

  • Document the changes/refinements/adjustments negotiated during the meeting.

Record the changes in the table provided below.

Changes to MOU

Changes to Collaboration Plan

  • Apply the changes to the MOU and the Collaboration Plan.

Please note that the trainer and assessor will check that the changes have been implemented in the MOU and the Collaboration Plan in your assessment submission.

The trainer and assessor will evaluate your performance during the Role-Play.

If you are absent from class, it is your responsibility to make alternative arrangements with the trainer and assessor to perform the Role-Play.

References

Please include your references below:
(Please refer to this referencing guide if needed or speak to your trainer for any specific referencing requirements for this assessment)

Appendix 1 – Scenario

The company

XYZ Pty Ltd, trading as MMI Professional Education is an Australian boutique education provider in Melbourne Registered Training Organisation -RTO), offering VET accredited and non-accredited business courses to corporate clients and to local clients (domestic students).

MMI was founded in 1998 by brothers Mark and Andrew White, who built the company to become a quality RTO with major accounts in Melbourne, Sydney, and Brisbane.   Mark Brown sold his shares to his brother Andrew who is the current chairman of the company.

The education provider is centrally located in Collins Street, Melbourne CBD, with state-of-the-art facilities:

  • Administration and Management Offices (including the main boardroom, 2 meetings rooms and a computer lab with 20 PCs) on Level 45
  • 15 Classrooms, kitchenette, client lounge room and a trainers’ room on Level 46

Corporate training is mainly non-accredited and delivered at the clients’ premises around Australia, but it can also be catered for at Collins Street. Corporate clients include major Bank groups, National Management Consultancy firms, Manufacturing companies and Government agencies.

Accredited courses are delivered in Collins Street with a combination of face to face and online training delivery. The accredited courses are the Diploma of Business and the Diploma of Project Management. MMI has a current capacity to enrol 500 clients, and current enrolment number is 250 clients.

Important note:

  • A VET accredited course has been assessed by the Australian Skills Quality Authority (ASQA) as compliant with the Standards for VET (Vocational Education and Training) Accredited Courses and the Australian Qualifications Framework (AQF). Accreditation means that the course is nationally recognised and that the registered organisation (RTO) can issue a nationally recognised qualification or Statement of Attainment (this for single units only).
  • Non-accredited courses are business courses that have been highly customised to meet clients’ training needs.

The current organisational structure is as follows:

The Teams are composed as follows:

  • Board of Directors
  • Mr Andrew White – Chairman
  • Ms Francis Green – Executive Director
  • Mr Eli Brown – Non-executive Director
  • Taylor Magenta – Non- executive Director
  • Ms Deborah Red – CEO
  • Mr Leonard Black – CFO
  • Finance Department: CFO and 2 x financial officers (full-time)

Summary of duties: account receivable, account payable; invoicing; payroll; financial record keeping and reporting; taxes/fees

  • Marketing Team: Manager (full time) and 1 x marketing officer (part-time)

Summary of duties: promotion; design of marketing collaterals for events; social media; market research; public relations

  • HR Team: HR Manager and 2 x admin officers (part-time):

Summary of duties: Recruitment; Induction and training; performance management support; employee relations; safety; compensation and benefits

  • Client Services: Client Service Manager and 2 x receptionists; 4x client service officers, 1 x team leader, 1 x maintenance officer

Summary of duties:

  • front of office and back of office customer service activities (to include reception and response to enquiries)
  • support to academic staff
  • client admin: client admission, enrolment, enrolment variations, pastoral care, completion
  • building maintenance: 1x maintenance officer
  • Academic Services: Academic Manager and 5 contract business trainers for corporate training; 4 full time (ongoing) business trainers for accredited training

Summary of duties: accredited and non-accredited training and assessment; learning material and assessment development and validation; support with compliance monitoring; pastoral care.

  • IT services: outsourced to an external company

Summary of duties: network service; database administration (inventory and staff files); maintenance and update of the communication system including CRM (Customer Relationship management system); data management and security.

Note: in loco computer maintenance is performed by the maintenance officer who has some IT knowledge

Company Ownership structure

The company structure is a Pty Ltd:

  • The Chairman Andrew White holds 51% of the shares
  • 40% of the shares are held by an external corporation since late 2017, as a silent business partner
  • The remaining 9% is owned by other members of the Brown’s family

Vision

Our vision is to develop outstanding individuals through quality business training that encompasses personal and professional growth.

Mission

  • We create successful careers in business to advance business growth and to positively impact on the broader community.
  • We strive to provide exceptional business training that focuses on quality of teaching, practical learning, and successful outcomes

Values

Our core values are:

  • Quality
  • Integrity
  • Accountability
  • Respect for diversity
  • Innovation

MMI quality standards

  • Australian Skills Quality Authority (ASQA) standards
  • ISO9001 – Quality Management Systems
  • ISO 27001 Information Security
  • ISO 31000 Risk Management
  • Australian Business Excellence Framework

MMI – Boards’ of Director expectation

  • Quality of practices
  • Innovative solutions for business growth based on hard data and extensive research
  • Build an innovative and agile company that can respond to the challenges of an ever-changing business environment
  • Become market leader
  • Increase value for shareholders and clients

Industry, market, and strategic business direction

MMI Professional Education is a Registered Training Provider (RTO) based in Melbourne, Australia that offers business accredited and non-accredited courses to corporate clients, and local clients.

Strategic Objectives:

  • To expand the basis of the operation to Sydney where the company has experienced a high increase in demand for corporate training
  • To increase revenue by 10% annually for the next 3 years
  • To increase profits by 10% annually for the next 3 years
  • To position the company as a leader for quality business education in Australia within the next three years
  • To expand the course offering by adding new qualifications to the scope of registration: the Diploma of Leadership and Management and the Advanced Diploma of Program Management
  • To increase the base of local clients attending accredited courses
  • To implement sustainability to work practices: social, financial, and environmental
  • To expand the offering to international students by repackaging accredited business courses to add an internship component during the course

Current positioning

  • MMI enjoys a good reputation in the industry as a quality provider of business courses for corporate clients
  • Courses are marketed as hands-on, with trainers that currently work in the industry, providing current and cutting-edge skills to business professionals
  • MMI currently holds 15% of the corporate business training in Australia
  • MMI does not currently deliver business courses to international clients
  • MMI does not currently deliver courses overseas
  • The company is financially stable and sustainable

Operational overview

  • State of the art facility in Melbourne to be replicated in Sydney
  • Systems in use:
  • Student Management System (MMI system)
  • Learning Management System (Moodle)
  • Accounting Management System (MYOB) – does not interface with MMI system
  • Share drive
  • Share points
  • Zoom
  • Project Management Application for remote teamwork (trainers): Wrike
  • Trainers work both on-site in Melbourne and around Australia
  • Senior management to stay in Melbourne: campus director and team leaders to be employed to manage and supervise Sydney’s operations
  • Staff to be employed for the Sydney Campus
  • Administrative tasks such as enrolments will be undertaken by the Melbourne’s campus
  • Virtual teamwork practices to be implemented between Melbourne and Sydney
  • Website tailored to international students to be developed
  • Develop and implement sustainability policy and practices across the organisation, and sustainability has not been on the top five priorities of the company so far
  • All trainers are based in Melbourne; this impacts on financial costs when having to move trainers to other Australian capitals to conduct corporate training. Trainers who deliver corporate training receive a generous daily allowance when outside Melbourne ($250/day), all travel and accommodation expenses are paid for by MMI. This generous package impacts an average of 20% on the profit margin for each corporate course that is sold

Organisational culture

The organisational culture experienced at MMI is a mix of market and hierarchy culture.

  • The Market Culture: This culture is built upon the dynamics of competition and achieving concrete results. The focus is goal-oriented, with leaders who are tough and demanding. The organisation is united by a common goal to succeed and beat all rivals. The main value drivers are market share and profitability.
  • The Hierarchy Culture: This culture is founded on structure and control. The work environment is formal, with strict institutional procedures in place for guidance. Leadership is based on organised coordination and monitoring, with a culture emphasising efficiency and predictability. The values include consistency and uniformity.

(Source: https://popinnow.com/four-types-organizational-culture/ )

  • The organisation is top-heavy, and there are concerns that this may not suit the strategic objectives for growth and the opening of a second campus in Sydney.
  • The Board of Directors is invested in the change process; however, intervention is needed to bring departmental managers and teams on board.
  • It is recommended that an organisational culture more suitable for innovation, sustainability, agility, and progressive growth is developed and implemented.

Operational issues

The following operational issues have been identified internally:

  • The increased number of complaints due to lack of cultural sensibility of trainers when dealing with students from the non-Australian background (15% increase in the last 6 months alone)
  • All trainers are based in Melbourne; this impacts on financial costs when having to move trainers to other Australian capitals to conduct corporate training. Trainers who deliver corporate training receive a generous daily allowance when outside Melbourne ($250/day), all travel and accommodation expenses are paid for by MMI. This generous package impacts an average of 20% on the profit margin for each corporate course that is sold
  • An increasing number of enrolments in Melbourne, projected student population to raise from 205 to 450 by mid-2021. Current facilities are not sufficient to accommodate the increase in numbers (current facilities can accommodate max 350 students)
  • Delays in achieving marketing objectives due to the composition of the team (2 part-timers and one contractor) that cannot sustain the increased amount of marketing tasks (corporate events to enhance networking and identify potential corporate clients have increased by 30% in the past 6 months)
  • A new student management system has been developed in-house. The system was recommended by the Client Services and the Academic Managers for the seamless integration of the student management and the learning management system. However, the two managers failed to perform due diligence, and they did not consider that the new system does not interface with the finance management system. This will cause operational disruptions to the workflow as finance records (mainly revenues) will have to be manually inputted based on the new system’s reports on enrolment.
  • Covid19 has decreased sales by 20%, the company has managed to deliver existing courses and still maintain a reasonable margin of new enrolments online

Marketing

  • MMI has not heavily invested in marketing activities, relying mainly on word of mouth.
  • The company has a website:
  • Old fashioned look, quite austere
  • Not responsive
  • In the mobile version, after you have clicked in a few pages, the navigation becomes daunting
  • Heavy use of text
  • Infrequent updates
  • Social Media: there is a FB page that is rarely updated, the LinkedIn Page is not in use
  • Print advertisement: Industry magazine
  • Referrals: education agents are paid 15% commission for referring students
  • Discounts: twice/year MMI offers 10% for new enrolments to attract more students
  • Yearly marketing budget: $75,000
  • The marketing team is small and not experienced in digital and social media marketing

Pricing

Product Target Market Price
Corporate Training

Topics:

·       Operational Management

·       Leadership

·       Project Management

·       Emotional Intelligence

·       Change Management

·       Management

·       Individuals looking for upskilling to advance their career

Face to Face classroom (average of 10 participants) $ 2,000/participant

Online $ 800/participant

Individual coaching $ 150/hour

 

Diploma of Business Domestic students Blended learning:

$ 4,000/student

Diploma of Project Management Domestic students Blended learning:

$ 6,000/student

Workforce Overview

The following has been reported:

  • Turnover rates are high in the academic department (30% yearly) due to the contractual nature of some of the roles. Ongoing training staff is steady, however, there is a need to invest more in their professional development to keep industry currency when teaching.
  • Need for a succession plan for management roles
  • Gender unbalanced
  • Recruitment is done externally, few opportunities for advancement are offered to existing staff
  • A recent staff survey outlined the following:
  • Lack of opportunities for advancement
  • Top heavy management
  • Silo mentality
  • Not enough room for innovation and improvement
  • Lack of well-defined sustainability policy
  • Diversity policy is very generic
  • HR practices are mainly focused on administrative duties. The Board of Directors has identified the need to embrace HR practices as an essential strategic tool for business advancement.
  • Training on HR practise is required for management
  • Staff lament a lack of communication from the top
  • Sense of working in silos

Remuneration (average) for each role is as followed:

  • Board of Director – 25-50 k/year
  • CEO – 250 k/year
  • CFO – 180 k/year
  • Managers – 120k/year
  • Receptionist $ 52k/year
  • Officers (including team members in the Marketing dept) $ 65k/year
  • Team Leader $ 78k/year
  • Trainer (ongoing) $ 85k/year
  • Trainer (contractor): $ 80/hour.  Trainers who deliver corporate training receive a generous daily allowance when outside Melbourne ($250/day), all travel and accommodation expenses are paid for by MMI.

Note:

  • The above remuneration must be considered pro-rata for part-time staff.
  • Superannuation is excluded and should be added at 10% to employee’s ordinary earnings
  • Superannuation is paid to contractors (business trainers)

The following table provides an overview of the type of job arrangements:

Finance Department
Job Role Employment Status Gender Age Notes
CFO Ongoing – full time M 62
Financial Officers Ongoing -full time F-M 24;32
Marketing Team
Job Role Employment Status Gender Age Notes
Manager Ongoing -full time M 58
Marketing Officer Ongoing- part time; 0.5 FTE M 22
Social Media Officer Ongoing- part time; 0.5 FTE M 21
Content Writer Contractor M 24
HR Team
Job Role Employment Status Gender Age Notes
Manager Ongoing -full time M 54
HR Officer Ongoing- part time; 2.5 FTE M-F 35;38
Client Services
Job Role Employment Status Gender Age Notes
Manager Ongoing-full time F 59
Receptionist Ongoing part time (0.6 FTE) F; M 21;22
Client Service Officer 3 Ongoing full time

1 Ongoing part time (0.6 FTE)

3 M

1 F

26,22,25,24
Team Leader Ongoing-full time M 31
Maintenance officer Contractor M 42
Academic Services
Job Role Employment Status Gender Age Notes
Manager Ongoing-full time M 54 The contractors also run their own business.
Contract Business Trainers Contractors 3 x M; 2 x F Average 42
Business Trainers Ongoing – full time 2xM; 2x F Average 36

The industry and the market

Excerpt from IBISWorld report:

The Education and Training division has undergone significant reform over the past five years. Ongoing effects from a demand-driven funding model for tertiary education introduced in 2012, a new school funding model and policy initiatives aimed at increasing access to preschool education have all boosted industry growth over the period. While Australia’s population growth has increased domestic demand for education and training, the division has expanded at a faster rate than the population over the past five years. Increased government funding, growth in international student enrolments and rising tuition fees have contributed to the division’s expansion over the period. Overall, division revenue is expected to increase at an annualised 1.7% over the five years through 2019-20, to $134.6 billion. This includes an expected rise of 1.3% in the current year. Slower growth in 2019-20 is expected because of a decline in international student enrolments, due to the COVID-19 outbreak.

The Federal Government introduced a demand-driven funding model for the University and Other Higher Education industry in 2012. This model significantly increased student enrolments and government funding over the past five years. The VET FEE-HELP scheme has also boosted student enrolments in vocational education. Similarly, the National Partnership Agreement on Early Childhood Education has increased preschool enrolments. The division has also benefited from the Australian dollar depreciating over the past five years, which has encouraged enrolments from overseas students.

The Education and Training division is forecast to continue expanding over the next five years. Increased funding for schools from the Quality Schools package will likely boost division revenue and lift enrolments in government schools over the period. Division revenue is projected to grow at an annualised 4.4% over the five years through 2024-25, to $167.2 billion. However, this forecast is reliant on the travel restrictions implemented because of the COVID-19 outbreak being relaxed in early 2020-21.

Industry Performance

The Education and Training division has grown over the past five years.

Several factors have influenced the division’s performance, including population growth, changes to government policy and funding, international student enrolments and labour trends. Population growth is the main demand driver for education, particularly in the demographic aged five to 18. Strong private school enrolment and tuition fee increases have also contributed to the division’s expansion over the period. Furthermore, underlying demand for tertiary education has increased as more people upskill to compete in a tough job market. Overall, division revenue is expected to grow at an annualised 1.7% over the five years through 2019-20, to $134.6 billion. This trend includes an expected rise of 1.3% in the current year. Subdued growth in the current year is expected because of a forecast decline in international student enrolments, due to travel restrictions imposed after the COVID-19 outbreak in China.

Government policy

Significant reforms to education policy and funding have influenced the division’s performance over the past five years.

Recurrent government expenditure is a large source of income for most division participants, so changes to funding and education policy significantly affect the division’s performance. While government schools receive the most funding from relevant state and territory governments, funding from the Federal Government has increased over the past five years. Following the Review of Funding for Schooling in 2011, the Federal Government introduced a new funding model for primary and secondary school education in 2014, known as Students First. Under the Students First model, schools receive recurrent funding based on a benchmark amount per student, with additional funding allocated to address student disadvantage.

The Federal Government implemented a demand-driven funding model in the University and Other Higher Education industry in 2012. This model removed enrolment caps for undergraduate programs supported by government funding. These changes have significantly increased student enrolments over the past five years, lifting government funding for higher education institutions and boosting the industry’s overall revenue. In addition, the 2012 National Partnership Agreement on Skills Reform expanded the VET FEE-HELP scheme nationally and removed credit transfer requirements, increasing demand for vocational education over the period.

The Preschool Education industry has grown significantly over the past five years, partly due to increased Federal Government funding from the Universal Access to Early Childhood Education scheme. The Council of Australian Governments (COAG) implemented the National Partnership Agreement on Early Childhood Education in 2008. This agreement aimed to provide all four-year-old children with access to 15 hours of preschool education for 40 weeks per year. COAG endorsed the second National Partnership Agreement on Early Childhood Education in 2013, reaffirming its commitment to universal access to preschool education. Over 2016 and 2017, the Federal Government allocated $840.0 million to the state and territory governments to support this goal. The Federal Government allocated a further $428.0 million to continue funding the Universal Access to Early Childhood Education program in 2018. An additional $453.1 million has also been allocated to extend Universal Access to Early Childhood Education until the end of 2020.

International student enrolments

The number of international students studying at Australian Technical and Further Education (TAFE) providers, universities and other tertiary education institutions heavily influences the performance of the Tertiary Education segment.

The University and Other Higher Education industry generates approximately one-quarter of its revenue from services provided to international students. This market also contributes significantly to the Technical and Vocational Education and Training industry. International students also contribute to the Art and Non-Vocational Education industry’s revenue through English Language Intensive Courses for Overseas Students enrolments.

International student enrolments have risen over the past five years, as the depreciation of the Australian dollar has made tuition fees more affordable for international students. The Federal Government introduced streamlined visa processing (SVP) arrangements for students in 2012, which have increased the number of international students studying in Australia. Under these arrangements, students offered a place at an SVP-eligible institution were treated as low-risk, meaning that visa approval did not depend on a student’s financial capability and English language proficiency. In 2016, the Simplified Student Visa Framework (SSVF) replaced the SVP. The SSVF reduced the number of student visa subclasses and implemented a single immigration risk framework for all international students. These reforms have contributed to increasing international student enrolments over the past five years.

International student enrolments are expected to contract sharply in 2019-20, because of the COVID-19 virus outbreak. A large proportion of Australia’s international student body are Chinese nationals. However, the Australian Government implemented travel restrictions on foreign nationals entering Australia from China in early February 2020. This decision coincided with the beginning of the academic year, limiting the ability of Chinese students to enrol in courses. In March 2020, the Australian Government announced strict border regulations aimed at preventing the spread of COVID-19. This regulation is expected to further reduce the number of international students enrolments and contribute to a decline in profitability over the five years through 2019-20.

Industry trends

Most industries in the division operate either using government funds or on a non-profit basis.

Nevertheless, the division’s growing number of private providers is expected to limit the decline in division profitability over the period. Enterprise and establishment numbers in the division have increased over the past five years, due to government reforms and increasing demand. For example, the demand-driven funding model for university placements, introduced in 2012, has increased the number of private enterprises operating in the tertiary education sector. However, merger and acquisition activity in the private sector and the exit of providers unable to meet stringent operating requirements have somewhat offset some of this expansion.

Cost concerns

Employment and total wage costs have risen over the past five years as the division has expanded to meet growing demand.

Experienced and effective educators are crucial for delivering student learning outcomes. Effective teachers have become more important as increasing significance has been placed on National Assessment Program (Literacy and Numeracy) scores, and ATAR results, over the period. In addition, universities have increasingly required teachers to hold PhD qualifications and the National Quality Framework has introduced minimum staff-to-student ratios in preschools. These factors have caused total wage costs to rise over the past five years.

Classrooms and lecture theatres have increasingly incorporated new technology over the past five years, and digital platforms for learning and administration are now commonplace in the division. Increased technology adoption has boosted capital costs for division operators and caused depreciation expenses to rise as a share of revenue for many providers over the period. Use of new technology is expected to be ramped up in the current year, as operators aim to allow students unable to enter Australia to participate in classes remotely.

Industry Outlook

Changes in government funding, and demographic and labour trends will continue to influence the Education and Training division’s performance over the next five years.

The population aged between five and 18 is forecast to continue rising over the next five years. This trend will likely increase demand for private and government schools, which collectively represent over half of total division revenue. Growth in government funding for schools, boosted by the Quality Schools package, is projected to drive division expansion over the next five years. This expansion is subsequently anticipated to support increases in employment and total wages over the period. As many teaching positions will likely require higher qualifications, the division’s average wage is also forecast to rise over the next five years, constraining profit growth. However, the rise of online courses will likely limit wage growth over the period, as online courses allow institutions to cater for more students with fewer staff. Digital education is also anticipated to constrain growth in establishment numbers across the tertiary and non-vocational education sectors over the next five years. Population growth and increased public funding for primary, secondary and tertiary education are projected to boost division revenue and enrolments over the period. Division revenue is forecast to increase at an annualised 4.4% over the five years through 2024-25, to $167.2 billion. This forecast is reliant on the travel restrictions imposed because of the COVID-19 virus outbreak being relaxed in early 2020-21.

Government funding reforms

Commonwealth funding for Australian schools is anticipated to rise by $1.0 billion annually from 2018, to total $32.4 billion in 2029 under the Quality Schools package (also known as the Gonski 2.0 funding model).

This model allocates funding according to a base rate per student, with additional funding provided to assist students with disabilities, low English proficiency, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander heritage, or socio-educational disadvantage. Loadings will also depend on a school’s size and location. This additional funding is forecast to increase the resources available to public schools over the next five years, making them more competitive compared with private schools. The Quality Schools package is also projected to constrain revenue growth for some private schools over the period. Under the package, the base amount received per student will be discounted based on the capacity to contribute assessment for each school. This assessment measures a school’s socio-economic status, calculated using the local socio-economic index derived from the most recent Australian Census data and students’ residential addresses. Higher assessment scores will reduce the base amount of funding provided. Therefore, many elite private schools are projected to receive less government funding. However, increasing household discretionary incomes are forecast to support a continued rise in private school tuition fees over the next five years. Enrolments in preschools, and public and private schools, are anticipated to increase over the period, supporting division revenue growth.

In January 2017, the VET Student Loans scheme replaced the previous VET FEE-HELP program. The VET scheme is forecast to reduce the funding available to the VET sector over the next five years. This trend is due to a decreasing number of subsidised courses, stricter course eligibility requirements for students and lower caps for student loans. Research initiatives undertaken by universities will likely receive more funding over the period, supporting division revenue. However, the Federal Government has imposed a cap on funding for bachelor’s degrees from January 2018 until 2020. From 2020 onwards, funding increases for bachelor’s degrees will be linked to university performance, as well as growth in the population aged 18 and 64. These changes are anticipated to restrict growth in the University and Other Higher Education industry over the next five years.

International enrolments

The number of international students is forecast to increase over the next five years.

Favourable changes to post-study work visa requirements are projected to support international enrolments, particularly at universities. However, Australia’s high cost of living is projected to remain a significant deterrent to international students over the period. Additionally, the anticipated appreciation of the Australian dollar over the period will likely make tuition fees relatively more expensive. Furthermore, countries such as the United Kingdom and Canada will likely intensify their marketing campaigns to attract international students over the next five years, increasing external competition. Consequently, the number of international enrolments is projected to rise at a much slower rate over the next five years, compared with the previous five-year period. If travel restrictions implemented because of the COVID-19 virus in early 2020 are retained for a long period of time, international enrolments are likely to decline.

Demand trends

Demand for tertiary education is anticipated to grow over the next five years, driven by increases in the population aged between 18 and 25, and a rising secondary school retention rate.

Formal qualifications are increasingly required for entry-level positions in the national workforce, supporting future enrolments in tertiary education. However, profitability is forecast to decline for the Art and Non-Vocational Education industry over the next five years, limiting growth in division profit margins.

The Education and Training Division is counter cyclical, meaning demand can rise when general economic conditions decline. The outbreak of the COVID-19 virus is forecast to have a largely negative effect on the Australian economy, and potentially lead to a significant rise in unemployment. When unemployment levels are high, many people upskill by enrolling in further education courses, to make themselves more attractive to employers.

Industry Outlook 2020–2025

Bar chart with 6 bars.

View as data table, Industry Outlook 2020–2025

The chart has 1 X axis displaying Year. Range: 2019.95 to 2025.05.

The chart has 1 Y axis displaying Percentage (%). Range: 0 to 8.

Year Percentage (%) Industry Outlook2020–202520212223242502468Education and Training Source: IBISWorld

End of interactive chart.

Performance Data Outlook

Industry Data (Value)Industry Data (% change) Industry Ratios Year Revenue ($m) IVA ($m) Establishments (Units)

Enterprises (Units) Employment (Units) Exports ($m) Imports ($m) Wages ($m) Domestic Demand ($m) 2019–20 134,563 81,949 46,881 26,614 825,563 N/A N/A 72,370 N/A 2020–21 144,696 85,422 48,812 27,166 849,484 N/A N/A 75,368 N/A 2021–22 150,290 87,612 48,417 26,963 863,133 N/A N/A 77,182 N/A 2022–23 156,383 88,857 49,497 27,621 864,441 N/A N/A 78,053 N/A 2023–24 160,928 92,231 49,952 28,079 883,444 N/A N/A 81,016 N/A 2024–25 167,239 94,994 50,967 28,246 900,168 N/A N/A 83,409 N/A 2025–26 168, 382 95,012 51,021 28,922 900,122 N/A N/A 83,552 N/A Industry Life Cycle

The life cycle stage of this industry is Mature

The Education and Training division is in the mature phase of its economic stage of its economic life cycle. Industry value added, a measure of the division’s contribution to the economy, is projected to increase at an annualised 2.4% over the 10 years through 2024-25. This trend represents an outperformance relative to the economy, with Australian GDP forecast to grow at an annualised 2.3% over the same period. This result is mainly due to higher government funding and strong demand for more expensive education offerings such as private schools and universities.

Although some industries in the division are significantly expanding, others are growing more slowly. The Technical and Vocational Education and Training industry is contracting, due to slowing student enrolment numbers and changes to government funding arrangements. Conversely, revenue generated by the Government Schools industry and the Private Schools industry is forecast to grow strongly over the next five years, mainly due to significantly higher funding provided by the Quality Schools package.

Each industry in the division offers an extensive range of services, catering to a diverse group of students across a range of markets. Operators continue to assess the needs of students to determine what other facilities may be added. Universities and TAFEs are increasingly responding to market needs and developing courses to fill labour shortages and skill mismatches. The division’s growth has encouraged many incumbent providers to expand their operations and private providers to enter the division. However, the education sector is well established, with a largely saturated market and a developed range of programs and services. Education courses and qualifications are also clearly segmented. Furthermore, the market for services supplied by the division has displayed minimal change over the past five years, as it is largely based on population demographics that do not fundamentally change.

LIFE CYCLE REASONS

  • Industry value added is growing primarily due to increasing government funding
  • Courses and services in the division are clearly defined and segmented
  • The number of industry establishments is growing

The Education and Training division consists of several industries that provide different levels of education.

Education levels range from preschool to university and other higher education. The Government Schools industry is the largest industry operating in the division and the Sports Instructors industry is the smallest.

Government schools

Government-administered schools provide primary and secondary education.

Some public schools charge voluntary fees to families, but they cannot deny access to students if a family cannot pay these fees. School funding structures have been reformed following the Gonksi reports and significant public pressure. These reforms include strong growth in state and federal funding to the Government Schools industry. As a result, this segment has grown as a share of division revenue over the past five years. The Quality Schools package, introduced in January 2018, is expected to drive revenue increases for government schools in the current year.

University and other higher education

The University and Other Higher Education industry consists of accredited providers of undergraduate and postgraduate degrees, as listed in the Higher Education Support Act 2003.

This segment shifted to a demand-driven model with the removal of caps on undergraduate course places in 2012, causing domestic student enrolments to rise. However, enrolments in postgraduate diplomas and undergraduate courses other than bachelor’s degrees have declined, placing downward pressure on revenue for this industry. Growth in international student numbers have driven this segment higher as a share of division revenue over the past five years. However, the decline in international student enrolments in the current year because of the travel restrictions implemented to halt the spread of COVID-19 are expected to reduce the segment’s contribution to division revenue in the current year.

Private schools

Private school operators provide primary and secondary education for a compulsory fee.

Although state and territory governments do not administer schools in this industry, these schools must adhere to education policies set by relevant jurisdictions. Private schools must be non-profit to be eligible for government funding. Private school tuition fees and enrolment numbers have risen over the past five years due to the growing importance placed on National Assessment Program (Literacy and Numeracy) and ATAR scores and increases in household disposable income. As a result, the Private Schools industry’s share of division revenue has increased over the period.

Technical and vocational education and training

The Technical and Vocational Education and Training industry consists of registered training organisations, including TAFEs and other private and community providers of technical and vocational education.

An influx of registered training organisations and online providers has caused industry competition to intensify over the past five years, placing downward pressure on prices for technical and vocational education courses. Additionally, in 2017 the Federal Government replaced the VET FEE-HELP system with the more stringent VET Student Loans program. This program reduced the number of subsidised VET courses and introduced stricter eligibility requirements for students and providers. The Technical and Vocational Education and Training industry’s share of division revenue has fallen over the past five years, due to revenue declines in this industry.

Art and non-vocational education

The Art and Non-Vocational Education industry consists of a range of education providers such as tutors, driving schools, language schools and performing arts colleges.

Increases in business coaching enrolments and revenue from English Language Intensive Courses for Overseas Students has supported this industry as a share of division revenue over the past five years. Demand for tutoring services has also risen over the period, as parents have sought to provide their children with a competitive advantage in school. However, other industries have outpaced demand growth in the Art and Non-Vocational Education industry over the past five years. As a result, this industry’s share of division revenue has fallen over the period.

Preschool education

Preschool operators provide accredited pre-primary education, which prepares children for school.

These programs educate children aged three through five, and are conducted by public, private and community providers. The Preschool Education industry’s share of division revenue has slightly increased over the past five years, primarily due to growth in government funding. The Universal Access to Early Childhood Education program has worked to improve the quality and consistency of preschool education by setting compulsory national standards. As part of the program, the Federal Government aimed to have all children aged four attend 15 hours of preschool education for 40 weeks each year. Increased government funding and rising enrolment numbers have boosted revenue for preschool education over the past five years.

Sports instruction

The Sports Instructors industry is the smallest industry in the Education and Training division.

This industry provides non-vocational instruction in sporting and physical recreation activities and does not include fitness instructors. This segment’s share of division revenue has declined over the past five years, due to faster growth in other education industries.

Demand Determinants

Demand for education is primarily determined by demographics, the employment market, job skill requirements and government policy.

To a lesser extent, demand for educational services is also affected by exchange rate movements and immigration policy, which influence international student enrolment. Schooling for children aged between six and 16 is compulsory, with some variation among the states and territories. The population’s age distribution affects demand for different levels of education. An increase in births raises the demand for preschool and primary school services in the following four to five years. As these individuals grow older, demand for education shifts to the secondary level.

In an increasingly knowledge-based economy, more occupations now require higher education qualifications. This trend has boosted demand for TAFE and university courses over the past five years. Changes in the mix of skills and occupations required by various industries influence demand for education. Mature-age individuals are returning to education due to shifting workforce skill requirements. A growing skills mismatch and poor supply of labour in certain industries have prompted government responses to close the labour gap. The introduction of technology into many different fields of work has stimulated demand for training in new processes. This trend has particularly benefited TAFEs over the past five years. Government support for students in post-school education, such as TAFE and university, also encourages students to stay in school. Conversely, a low and falling unemployment rate may encourage high school students to enter the workforce after exiting high school instead of undertaking further study.

Non-vocational education is growing in prevalence, with greater numbers of international students boosting demand for English language courses. Business confidence and labour market conditions also affect demand for education. During periods of low business confidence, employers are reluctant to invest in the professional development of their staff. However, a rising unemployment rate and slow wage growth typically increases demand for educational services as a means of improving career development opportunities.

International Trade

Exports in this industry are Low and Increasing

Imports Low and Steady

While the Education and Training division does not directly participate in international trade, fees paid by international students represent export revenue for education providers. This revenue derives from education services delivered both onshore at Australian campuses and offshore via the internet, correspondence, or Australian institutions located overseas. Universities and TAFEs are most vulnerable to declining international student numbers as they heavily rely on this market for revenue. International enrolments in Australian education surged at the beginning of the decade but started to decline in 2010. Various factors were responsible for the weaker demand, including the effects of the global financial crisis, an appreciating Australian dollar, visa and immigration changes and more aggressive recruitment from competitor markets, such as the United States, the United Kingdom and Canada. However, the number of international students has risen over the past five years, due to a relaxation of student visa requirements and the depreciation of the Australian dollar.

Competitive landscape

Market Share Concentration

Concentration in this industry is Low

The Education and Training division exhibits low level of market share concentration, with the four largest operators expected to account for less than 40% of industry revenue in the current year. Industries in the Education and Training division typically feature many small operators that do not have a dominant market share. The division’s three largest players are the NSW Department of Education, the Department of Education and Training Victoria, and the Queensland Department of Education and Training. The Private Schools industry exhibits higher concentration than the Government Schools industry, as private schools typically charge higher fees and tuition, boosting their revenue and market share. The Preschool Education industry displays low market share concentration as it mainly consists of community-based organisations.

The University and Other Higher Education industry’s market share concentration is low, but high compared with the rest of the division. This higher concentration is due to government policy and historical development. In comparison, the Technical and Vocational Education and Training industry is dominated by the different state governments which run separate TAFE systems. This industry’s market share concentration has fluctuated over the past five years in response to changing government funding structures and revenue from international student fees.

The Art and Non-Vocational Education industry, and the Sports Instructors industry have the lowest industry concentrations of the division. The Art and Non-Vocational Education industry offers a range of services and many firms specialise in niche markets, contributing to low industry concentration. This industry has many owner-operator businesses, such as driving schools and tutoring services. Overall, the division’s market share concentration is likely to remain low over the long term due to the diverse nature of these industries.

Excerpt from NCVER Report:

Market snapshot:

  • In 2016, training activity was reported by 4279 training providers, with registered training organisations accounting for nearly all training activity
  • it is estimated there were 4.2 million clients enrolled in VET with an Australian training provider in 2016, a 4.9% increase from an estimated 4.0 million in 2015
  • the participation rate of VET clients in Australia as a proportion of the Australian population aged 15—64 years is estimated at 24.2%, an increase from 23.5% in 2015
  • there were 3.7 million program enrolments, a 3.8% increase from 2015
  • nationally recognised training accounted for 85.2% of all program enrolments, a 2.3% decrease from 2015

Excerpt from Seek Employment Report:

Workplace training and assessment was another area of job ad growth for December, with SEEK ads up by 17% year-on-year. “That area of our business has certainly been busy and we’re seeing a lot of in-house workplace training roles,” says Jones. “Training is still quite high on the agenda for many organisations at the moment, which is good news for candidates across most industries.”

Jo ads for early childhood teaching roles were also up by 12% year-on-year and adult education was on the rise. Tertiary teaching roles grew by 11% compared to the same time last year and vocational teaching increased by 2% over the same period.

Excerpt from ABS Work Related Training and Adult Learning:

The Survey of Work-Related Training and Adult Learning (WRTAL) was collected throughout Australia from July 2016 to June 2017.

  • Four in ten (40.9%) Australians aged 15-74 years participated in formal and/or non-formal learning in 2016-17. Participation has decreased since the last survey in 2013 (46.4%) and since 2005 (48.9%).
  • More men than women participated in formal and/or non-formal learning in 2005. By 2013, participation was higher for women than men, and this continues to be the case in 2016-17.
  • One in two (50.5%) men participated in 2005, decreasing to 45.1% in 2013 and then to 39.4% in 2016-17. Women’s participation rate was relatively stable between 2005 (47.2%) and 2013 (47.7%) but then fell to 42.3% in 2016-17.
  • Participation in formal and/or non-formal learning in 2016-17 was higher for people who were working or unemployed (in the labour force) (46.1%) than for those not in the labour force (28.1%). However, participation by people in the labour force has decreased from the rates recorded in 2005 (59.1%) and then in 2013 (53.1%) to 46.1% in 2016-17. In comparison, participation by people not in the labour force increased from 2005 (25.2%) to 2013 (29.9%) but then decreased in 2016-17 (28.1%).

Graph 1 – Participation in formal & or non-formal learning by age groups, 2005, 2013 & 2016-17(a)(b)(c)(d)

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