Emerging Technologies and Innovation Sample

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Emerging Technologies and Innovation Sample

Arena, D. (2012). Commercial video games as preparation for future learning (Doctoral dissertation, STANFORD UNIVERSITY)

The use of video games as a breakthrough technology in the domain of contextual learning has been discussed in the dissertation presented by Dylan Arena at Stanford University in 2012. The outcomes of the dissertation reflect on the positive impact that commercial video games can have on the learning experience of college students (Érdi et al., 2013). However, a critical perspective refers to the research constraints such as the minimal focus of the research on exposure of students to violence and sexually derogatory content on video games as well as the duration for which students are associated with gaming (Dixon et al., 2016). The conclusion depicted in the dissertation showed that students were able to retain contextual information effectively due to the role of video games in the creation of informal knowledge (Arena, 2012). Hence, it can be perceived that video games have proved to be an emerging technology with definitive contributions to the process of learning for future generations (Kirkwood & Price, 2013). However, the application of video games for learning purposes must be moderated by the implementation of changes in graphic content depicted in video games as well as the development of suitable monitoring strategies to ensure that students do not engage in excessive gaming (Kirkwood & Price, 2013).

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Breschi, S., & Malerba, F. (1997). Sectoral innovation systems: technological regimes, Schumpeterian dynamics, and spatial boundaries. Systems of innovation: Technologies, institutions and organizations, 130-156.

The article emphasizes the requirement of Sectoral Innovation Systems (SIS) as a preference over National Innovation Systems and Technological Systems. Prominent implications for defining the sectoral innovation systems as well as the technological regimes that assist in the flexible realization of efficiency in the SIS have been illustrated in the article. As per Breschi & Malerba, the critical perspective of the findings of the article indicates that sectoral innovation systems could contribute to efficient knowledge communication and transmission (Kirkwood & Price, 2013). It can be observed that the flexibility of information sharing within a sector accounts for the development of production strategies in the sector as well as the utilization of technologies available (Picardeau et al., 2014). The availability of technological opportunities is observed in the definition of Technological Regimes (TR) (Breschi & Malerba, 1997). TR can be defined as the degree of flexible and suitable conditions, nature of information, and integration of technological knowledge and these factors are responsible for determining the dynamics of the Sectoral Innovation Systems as well as defining their spatial boundaries (Gil-Garcia, Helbig & Ojo, 2014). The relationship between the SIS and TR for different scenarios is reflected in the outcomes of the article that can be validated on the grounds of empirical analysis of the distinct facets of SIS in the context of six countries (Rotolo et al., 2016).

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The development of Audience Response Systems (ARS) has contributed to a variety of sectors as an emerging technology, especially in the field of education. ARS, also known as clickers, have contributed to the improvement of learning platforms in classrooms as well as corporate organizations (Rotolo et al., 2016). The impact of using ARS has been prominently noted in the improvement of learning outcomes, improvement of performance, and institution of a positive holistic atmosphere in the surroundings. The articles of Caldwell J E provide a viable impression of the guidelines for implementing clickers to maximize personal benefits as well as deriving plausible questions as mentioned in the literature (Lundvall, 2016). Reflection on the article outcomes suggests that ARS or clickers can be considered as plausible emerging technologies leading to the introduction and monitoring of contemporary learning methods and hence they contribute to the innovation of students as they would be offered appropriate flexibility to express their opinions through questions (Trujillo, 2015). Utilization of ARS enables the respondents to engage in brainstorming for obtaining the most significant questions relevant to the subject material provided to them in classrooms or training sessions (Caldwell, 2007).

The article represents a clarification on the efficiency of computer applications for mathematics learning depending on a meta-analysis derived from 74 comprehensive studies that involved more than 56000 12 students. The reflection of article depicts that conventional computer applications with generic instructions for students were capable of producing legible results but to a minimal extent (Cheung & Slavin, 2013). On the contrary, it can be perceived that computer programs that are capable of integrating the assessment of specific needs of individual students in the methodology for providing instructions can improve student performance in mathematics (Vargo, Wieland & Akaka, 2015). As per Cheung, A.C. and Slavin, R.E., these programs are generally referred to as supplemental math programs (Robinson et al., 2013). The critical perspective of the article shows that programs such as PLATO and Jostens could prove to be the predecessors of technologies in contemporary learning. Positive outcomes of the implementation of supplemental math programs at secondary and elementary levels are indicative of their potential as emerging technologies that can develop the integration of technology in the educational sector (Vargo, Wieland & Akaka, 2015).

Organizational Behavior

Carlsson, B., Jacobsson, S., Holmén, M. and Rickne, A., (2002). Innovation systems: analytical and methodological issues. Research Policy31(2), pp.233-245.

Innovation systems have been characteristically divided into three distinct categories such as national, technological, sectoral, and regional which are associated with the development, distribution, and utilization of knowledge. The article describes the prominent methodological and analytical issues that are derived from the distinct system concepts (Cheung & Slavin, 2013). The issues highlighted in the article can be critically reviewed to obtain viable insights for contemporary research. As per Carlsson, B., Jacobsson, S., Holmén, M. and Rickne, A., evaluation of existing issues, determination of target population, and estimating the performance of the system are considered major pitfalls in the case of innovation systems (Gil-Garcia, Helbig & Ojo, 2014). Critical reflection suggests limitations in the case of the population since external relationships are negated, which could provide viable moderation of issues at hand, and measurement of system performance could result in negligence for individual component performance.

The article illustrates the efficiency of computer simulation programs as compared to conventional laboratory learning. The study outcomes are based on comparative research between two groups of students. The distinction between the two groups is ensured through the use of real laboratory equipment and computer simulations for the respective groups. As per Finkelstein et al., this research was executed in a DC circuit laboratory and the students were subject to an understanding of electron modeling (Dixon et al., 2016). A critical reflection on the outcomes presented in the article indicates the improvement of the efficiency of students through computer simulation. It can be aptly perceived that students who underwent training in electron modeling through computer simulation were capable of higher practical expertise as well as theoretical information of the subject learned by them in the laboratory (Finkelstein et al., 2005). Therefore, computer simulations could be the next emerging technology in the field of education since they provide a legible practical experience of coordinating various tasks involved in the assembly of a real circuit and its operations.

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Fisch, S. M., Lesh, R., Motoki, E., Crespo, S., & Melfi, V. (2010). Children’s learning from multiple media in informal mathematics education. National Science Foundation-funded Research Study.

The research activity highlighted in the report suggests the use of an informal mathematics project for identifying the interplay between distinct media components that are responsible for accomplishing integrated learning outcomes. The reflection on the article suggests that technological tools for informal education in mathematics which are associated with multiple media exposure for students in the age group of 8-11 years can be validated based on research outcomes (Finkelstein et al., 2005). As per Fisch et al, the use of informal education through media such as television and websites enables students to transfer learning across different stages of the learning process starting from treatment to posttest (Gil-Garcia, Helbig & Ojo, 2014). Students could also implement their knowledge in distinct mediums which necessitates the role of informal tools in mathematics education as an innovative and emerging technology. The use of naturalistic and experimental phases in the article depicts the level of precision in the research. However, the limitations could be observed in the impact of media dependence on learning and natural constraints which cause students to face difficulties while using the preferred choice of media for learning.

The article explores learning from the perspective of distinct scenarios and illustrates knowledge development through the construction of disciplinary knowledge. The conceptualization of knowledge can be associated with distinct facets such as emphasizing the content of the game and its capability to illustrate the process of learning. According to Foster, the participants were asked to play a simulation strategy game that used navigational strategies for learning (Finkelstein et al., 2005). Evaluating the article from a critical point of view, it can be concluded that the use of the simulation strategy game led to students acquiring technical skills and proficiency in economic concepts, which can be considered a reasonably favorable emerging technology (Lundvall, 2016). However, certain limitations such as ambiguity among students about the use of simulation strategy games for learning academic content have to be taken into consideration for accomplishing enhanced student performance and integration of player characteristics as a viable indication of educational performance.

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The research depicts that innovative teaching drastically varies in the internal environment of schools rather than between schools. The use of ICT has been considered as a major implication for the development of innovative teaching in the internal environment of an organization. ICT can be verified from a critical standpoint to describe that it can be integrated into the professional framework to obtain viable outcomes such as analysis of information, utilization of animations and simulations, working with external agents, and collaboration with other contemporaries in learning (Strayer, 2012). As per Strayer, the outcomes can be critically validated on the grounds of the report of minimal chances for students to develop collaboration and problem-solving skills. The potential recommendations that could be suggested for the report refer to the induction of partnership among teachers within the environment of a school leading to professional development. This results in a common school culture that could be established and the teachers can access substantial opportunities for experimentation and implementation of innovative teaching methods.

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Kay, R. H., & LeSage, A. (2009). Examining the benefits and challenges of using audience response systems: A review of the literature. Computers & Education53(3), 819-827.

The article emphasizes on comprehensive literature review and provides distinct insights into the benefits of ARS (Audience Response Systems) in educational enterprises. The review reflects on the validation of benefits of the ARS as well as the challenges which are encountered by teachers in realizing the benefits of ARS. As per Kay & LeSage, the critical reflection on the outcomes of the study such as classroom environment developments, learning improvements, and effective assessment show that ARS is considerably inflexible for teachers to understand thereby leading to higher consumption of time to make optimal use of the technology (Robinson et al., 2013). The introduction of new technology also provides substantial limitations for students as they would require a certain level of skill as well as time to adapt to the newly introduced system of learning, negative feedback for monitoring as well as confusing outcomes due to discussion on varying perspectives of a single topic (Kay & LeSage, 2009).

The study describes the intervention for communicating the natural consequences of alcohol consumption and the relevant impacts on the attitude of adolescents toward science. The implementation of the game can be critically evaluated with its comparative outcomes which are in contrast to the primary objective of spreading awareness on alcohol abuse. As per Klisch et al., students must acquire substantial content-based knowledge through interactive platforms such as games (Lundvall, 2016). However, the impact of age and health-related messages as well as the development of positive attitudes towards science. Potential indicators used in the study reflect on the satisfaction of players and ratings of usability provided by players which could be considerably insufficient to monitor the impact of the health-related messages (Klisch et al., 2012).

Economics for Business

Livingstone, S. (2008). Internet literacy: Young people’s negotiation of new online opportunities.

The article illustrated a literature review about digital divides and online literacy. Discussions on emerging technologies cannot be completed without consideration of the Internet as it is a continuously evolving platform for communication and has served as a major indicator of technological benefits. As per Livingstone, Internet skills are necessary for the upcoming generations and the variations in Internet usage and literacy contribute to the concerns over digital divides (Dixon et al., 2016). Therefore the consideration of the variations in internet usage has to be integrated into the distinct aspects of internet literacy by flexible design, education, and monitoring (Livingstone, 2008). A critical perspective of the outcomes depicted in the article reflects on the limited focus on age distribution as well as the flexibility of the interfaces available for internet access. Recommendations for improvement in the suggested outcomes could be inclined towards collection and analysis of the role of demographic factors in the development of internet literacy.

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References

Dixon, L.C., Ward, D.J., Smith, J., Holmes, S. and Mahadeva, R., 2016. New and emerging technologies for the diagnosis and monitoring of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease A horizon scanning review. Chronic respiratory disease, p.1479972316636994.

Érdi, P., Makovi, K., Somogyvári, Z., Strandburg, K., Tobochnik, J., Volf, P. and Zalányi, L., 2013. Prediction of emerging technologies based on analysis of the US patent citation network. Scientometrics, 95(1), pp.225-242.

Gil-Garcia, J.R., Helbig, N. and Ojo, A., 2014. Being smart: Emerging technologies and innovation in the public sector. Government Information Quarterly, 31, pp.I1-I8.

Kirkwood, A. and Price, L., 2013. Examining some assumptions and limitations of research on the effects of emerging technologies for teaching and learning in higher education. British Journal of Educational Technology44(4), pp.536-543.

Kaebnick, G.E., Heitman, E., Collins, J.P., Delborne, J.A., Landis, W.G., Sawyer, K., Taneyhill, L.A. and Winickoff, D.E., 2016. Precaution and governance of emerging technologies. Science, 354(6313), pp.710-711.

Lundvall, B.Å., 2016. Is there a technological fix for the current global stagnation?: A response to Daniele Archibugi, Blade Runner economics: Will innovation lead the economic recovery? Research Policy.

Ocasio, W., 2016, August. An Overview of Emerging Beverage Process Technologies. In IAFP 2016 Annual Meeting. AFP.

Picardeau, M., Bertherat, E., Jancloes, M., Skouloudis, A.N., Durski, K. and Hartskeerl, R.A., 2014. Rapid tests for diagnosis of leptospirosis: current tools and emerging technologies. Diagnostic microbiology and infectious disease, 78(1), pp.1-8.

Robinson, D.K., Huang, L., Guo, Y. and Porter, A.L., 2013. Forecasting Innovation Pathways (FIP) for new and emerging science and technologies. Technological Forecasting and Social Change80(2), pp.267-285.

Rotolo, D., Rafols, I., Hopkins, M.M. and Leydesdorff, L., 2016. Strategic intelligence on emerging technologies: Scientometric overlay mapping. Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology.

Sullivan, P.S., Grey, J.A. and Rosser, B.S., 2013. Emerging technologies for HIV prevention for MSM: what we’ve learned, and ways forward. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes (1999)63(0 1), p.S102.

Trujillo, L.Y.C., 2015. Ethics and Emerging Technologies. NanoEthics, 9(3), pp.251-254.

Vargo, S.L., Wieland, H. and Akaka, M.A., 2015. Innovation through institutionalization: A service ecosystems perspective. Industrial Marketing Management44, pp.63-72.

Woodson, T.S., 2016. Public-private partnerships and emerging technologies: A look at nanomedicine for diseases of poverty. Research Policy45(7), pp.1410-1418.

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