Employee engagement and dedication to their tasks is usually the central concern of the public sector managers since these are the determining elements of the organizational outcomes. This paper explores the application of Luther Gulick’s organizational theory and Maslow’s theory of human motivation in the public sector. Although Maslow and Luther Gulick advanced theories in different fields, both theories grounded on the need to integrate the employees’ full capacity in the execution of the public sector tasks. Luther Gulick’s organizational theory is based on the need to coordinate various aspects of an organization towards achievement of optimal outcomes. In his theory, Gulick proposes a POSCORB model which should be used by the public sector managers to maximize the employee capacity and thus exploit their full potential (Shafritz &Hyde, 2007). Planning is the first step in the implementation of Gulick’s theory. The major task of a public sector manager is to plan on the execution of a task thus assurance of intellectual conduct. It involves the preparation of taking an organized action for example through communication to all the involved stakeholders. Proper implementation of the planning phase lays a firm foundation for a project thus increasing the chances of its success. Secondly, a manager should organize the takeoff of an initiative carefully in the public sector. According to the Gulick Model, the human resource function is comprised of people with varying skills and capacity which needs to be carefully coordinated (Shafritz &Hyde, 2007).
Therefore, the managerial staff are required to oversee the collection of all the necessary raw materials for a certain project. Also at this stage, management expertise should be integrated to accomplish the established goals. Thirdly, the manager should ensure adequate staffing and training of the workforce to achieve the organizational goals (Shafritz &Hyde, 2007). With the staff in position and with the desirable training levels, the managers should then set the initiative in motion. Gulick’s model especially acknowledges the need to consider the environment when executing this step. Next, the theory highlights the role of a strict hierarchical system to coordinate between the various functions (Shafritz &Hyde, 2007). This element ensures the smooth flow of things with reporting mechanisms being put into place. After developing the six steps, the public administration manager should come up with a budget to fund the initiative. This theory underlines the capacity of an organized workforce in a company. Gulick stipulates that since human beings are aligned with various skills, so should the tasks be organized differently to utilize these optimally. In the public sector, this organizational model should be embraced to encourage specialization, simplify the work for all employees and thus prevent burn out which would demotivate the employees. On the other hand, Maslow’s theory of human motivation captures the essence of a willingness of public sector employees to serve their purpose. In the absence of lucrative payrolls, the public sector employee is usually motivated by an intrinsic capacity to serve. As a result, the public sector managers should acknowledge this factor and strategize on how to optimize employee involvement in an organization.
Unlike Gulick’s theory of organization, the human motivation theory emphasizes the need by the management to strategize on how to satisfy the needs of their employees according to their priority (Shafritz &Hyde, 2007). Maslow views that a manager in the public sector should purpose to grant their employees their basic needs first by ensuring timely disbursement of their salaries. This would make them feel independent and cater for their needs. Next, the manager should win the employees’ confidence by giving them job security. When employees feel safe about their jobs and that their work is being recognized, they become motivated to work even harder. At this point, the organization should cultivate a sense of belonging to the employees through the provision of feedback and acknowledging their input. Once employees feel fulfilled and belong to the agency, they will naturally become motivated and increase their dedication to work (Shafritz &Hyde, 2007). Again, when the managers appreciate the achievements of the employees, this will nourish their esteem needs and allow them to take pride in their daily work. Lastly, employers should acknowledge that the employees are doing valuable work and thus help them achieve self-realization. The two theories propose ways of improving employee involvement in the public sectors using two different approaches; workforce organization and human motivation. While Gulick’s theory of motivation emphasizes a strategic approach to managing human resources, Maslow advocates for the meeting of public employees’ needs from the basic ones to the highest level of self-actualization. Notably, Gulick’s theory of organization defines the appropriate ways of optimal employee engagement by allocating each of them the tasks they are well suited for and coordinating their efforts to achieve optimal productivity (Shafritz &Hyde, 2007).
On the other hand, Maslow’s theory of human motivation points at the need to meet the various needs by public sector employees in order of their priority and importance. Although the theories approach employee engagement from different perspectives, they are both tailored towards fostering optimal employee engagement and thus maximum organizational outcomes. In conclusion, Gulick’s organization theory sheds a light on the steps of managing a workforce by initially recognizing their unique capacities in the work setting. This theory ensures the effective and efficient functioning of an organization through full employee inclusion by dividing the work into several dealings. On the other hand, Maslow’s theory of motivation is founded on the framework that, if employees are motivated, they work with energy, enthusiasm and initiative. Both theories are relevant in the public sector and advocate for managers to keep an eye on the employees thus fostering employee engagement and inclusion.
Shafritz, J. M., and Hyde, A. C. (2007). Classics of Public Administration (6th ed.). Boston:
Wadsworth, Cengage Learning..