Estimate Cost

Posted on March 15, 2022 by Cheapest Assignment

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  • Estimate cost to Industry? What are the costs of this damage? Estimated by bird species, type of crop, type of damage and follow on costs.

Estimated by bird species, type of crop, type of damage and follow on costs: Bird destruction is a major problem in Australia, with cumulative damage to horticultural production estimated at about $300 million per year. Approximately 60 bird species are known to cause harm to horticultural crops. These species have marked differences in feeding strategies and patterns of behaviour that influence the composition, timing and severity of the damage they cause. Magpie Goose is found on the mainland of Australia, the islands surrounding it and the southern lowlands of New Guinea. It stretched from the south-eastern part of Australia to the white settlement. Magpie Geese has been the most abundant in the Top End of the Northern Territory (NT) with population projections ranging from just under a million to more than 3 million birds over the past 36 years. Strong recruitment trends are going, with nesting success closely linked to the above-average hurricane season. The projected population for Magpie Goose was 1,484,090 ± 231,849 (± standard error) with a variance coefficient of 15.6 per cent, which is a background of 66,66 geese per km2 in the survey area.

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This is an increase of 62% on the 2018 estimate. Over the last few years, mango farmers have complained that magpie geese have taken over their fields, come harvest season, and eat precious crops. Magpie geese have often been in the area and typically eat bulbs in the field, but as the farms grow and more horticultural crops reach the area, the geese have found a smorgasbord. They consume a large amount of seed, and it was very distressing. Birds are also harmful to drainage piping on the field. Magpie geese have already been found in Top End fields, but traditionally consumed only fruit that had already fallen from the trees, and thus did not pose a financial challenge to farmers. But now the current scenario is changing due to the change in the behavioural pattern of birds. Magpie Goose is herbivorous; it feeds primarily on grass blades and seeds but occasionally eats sedge rhizomes during dry periods. Exotic fruits and root crops can also be eaten. Food is harvested by ‘getting’ in shallow water to around 0.7 m, grazing, stripping the seed-heads of grass and digging bulbs and rhizomes out of soft mud or clay. This insect has the ability to feed on industrial turf. Flocks can feed on pasture and rice fields.

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Estimate cost to Industry? What are the costs of this damage: Is the avoidance of bird destruction a concern due to the volatile nature of year-to-year disturbance and lack of knowledge of the cost-effectiveness of widely used management strategies? Growers also require knowledge on how to better predict bird movements and abundance periods, and easy methods for predicting the degree of disruption, to direct possible growth strategies. The industry benefits and advantages of waterfowl use have not been precisely evaluated in the NT, but are considered to be significant. There is considerable expenditure on weapons, ammunition and other supplies, such as garments and air conditioning, as well as on fuel and vehicle expenditures, for hunters. Extrapolating from national studies and geographical studies from other areas of Australia, it is estimated that waterfowl hunting spending in the NT is about $10 m and likely as high as $25 m which create a job opportunity for 100. The harvest of Magpie Geese contributes in other ways to the local economy, especially in many remote Aboriginal communities in the Top End. One Magpie Goose is large enough to be a meal for one or two individuals, and up to 60,000 Magpie Goose are harvested annually by Aboriginal people. On the basis of a market replacement value of $20 per bird, the aboriginal harvest of Magpie Geese may add as much as $1.2 million a year to the NT economy. Earlier harvesting of mango resulted in decreased losses to the geese. In the later mango season, there was an increased chance of geese. The higher the rainy season, the later the arrival of the geese. The worse the rainy season, the earlier the migration from the wetlands and the earlier the arrival of the wetlands. Seasonal environments and behaviour of the geese are complex systems, different in terms of risk. Geese have a normal behavioural pattern – switching between the daily roosting location, the watering-place and the food spot.

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Disturbing these habits of everyday travel helps dispersion. In the future, greater knowledge of the relationship between the end of the wet season geese population surveys and the impact of water levels on wetlands can help to predict water levels, the level of geese is at risk for each harvest season.  Study on the use of Doppler radar to track geese movements is encouraging – analysis is underway All these help in the management scenario. Consultation on the handling of the dispute between horticulturalists and Magpie Geese shall be jointly undertaken Regulated by DPIR (Integrated Pest Management), DTSC (Take Permits) and DENR (Wildlife and Pest Management Animals). This has been enhanced in recent times by the participation of CDUs in research projects under consideration as the answer to mitigation. A concern of such a strategy is fragmentation or lack of clarification as to who is best suited. Approach to coping with problems. The implementation of the CDU research project has provided an important solution. The coordinating process, however, centred only on mango farmers and funding has now been completed. The deadline for the final drafting of the study work should be the date of the interdepartmental steering committee remained. Sharing study outcomes and fostering an open data policy are key factors in establishing strong collaborative research projects and utilising existing expertise. It is clear that Magpie Goose is an effective model framework for addressing a variety of issues relevant to the protection and management of wetlands and waterbirds, not just from an NT but also from a global viewpoint.

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  • Measures to deter problem species(shooting, cost of measures that are not effective, labour etc.) What are the options for deterring these bird species?

What are the options for deterring these bird species: Magpie Goose Management Strategy the Northern Territory has the highest community in the world and is the primary breeding site of Magpie Geese? The proposal will help to conserve and rebuild biodiversity, but then at the same time provide for its protected use and effective management where economic risk has occurred. The species is considered to be “iconical” in the Territory, and both Native and non-Aboriginal people have closely identified also with species. This is of great significance to Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal shooters but is at the centre of the Territory’s annual waterfowl hunting season. Up to 15,000 Magpie Geese, a year will be granted agricultural safety. Even so, maintenance should aim to reduce damage rather than maximise the amount of goose caught. As far as possible, the need to eliminate pests can be met by other permitted harvests, such as commercial harvesting. A number of major research gaps are found in this technique, particularly the potential for improved approaches to this. Reduce the influence on horticulturalists of Magpie Geese. Even more, feedback is needed as to whether this list is sufficient, how best to fix these gaps and potential funding opportunities, as well as the key priorities for enhancing long-term viability and the economic gains that result from the use of species (Price 2004).

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  • The total global output from all anthropogenic activities, including both non-commercial and commercial, is to be set at 8.4% of the annual harvest expected. The approximate population of Magpie Goose at the tip of the NT. The minimum population estimate (P) is described as the calculated figure for the study areas.
  • Farm protection requires that up to 15.000 Magpie Geese be taken yearly. Control will, however, aim to mitigate risk rather than maximise damage. Figures are taken and, to the extent practicable, fulfilling the need to remove pests. Abolition of other permitted harvests, such as agricultural processing
  • Scheduled the hunting season starting in mid-August for residential lands and a quarter for private land. Wednesday in September for hunting reserves, Monday after Monday’s closing date. Any shooting reservations could be closed early on the first Friday of January for organisational clarification. The very next initial step for shooting in the conservation reservation is to ensure that way earlier arrival birds are not transferred to nearby horticultural properties (Price, Woinarski and Robinson  1999).

Measures to deter problem species: Visual bird defence includes things such as steel or plastic spike systems, bird nets, electrified wire systems, non-electrified wire systems, electrified track systems, slope barriers, electronic spiders, chemical forgers and more. Hard bird spikes can pierce and impale birds, while the strategies of ‘blocking’ and ‘shocking’ will not damage birds. Regrettably, blunt tip bird spikes will even spur birds on windy days. Healthy shock and preventing strategies are simply removing birds without injury. The Humane Society of the United States (HSUS) recommends the use of bird nets, bird cable, contraceptives and low-current electrical protections. Many other different bird protection devices are widely used in the U.S. and the globe, with low-current startling wires and strips, netting and mesh being the most efficient bird control techniques. The destruction caused by insect birds is a significant problem for many horticultural industries in Australia. Many producers are calling for guidance on how to do it. Tackle this problem. Different strains of horticultural crops are being planted, growing practises are emerging, rates for agricultural crops are rising and the specific location of production is expanding.


These changes also lead to an increase in the spread and consequences of the pest. There is indeed a lack of Australian-based advisory firms to offer expertise to farmers. Individuals are seeking, in relation to the costs and future advantages of harm reduction strategies. These recommendations are meant to address this need. Bird damage is a problem that frustrates many producers due to a lack of accurate facts and information. There is indeed a range of ways of prevention, and pest control can be expensive. In 2000, research performed by 30 local grape growers at the University of Sydney in the Central Ranges of New South Wales found that bird conservation was costly about $500 per hectare per year, with most approaches inefficient in the protection of crops. In addition, the shooting of birds does not reduce agricultural losses, and associated animal welfare and environmental concerns make the practice controversial and politically sensitive. Exclusion netting is usually the most effective method, but it is expensive and thus either not practical or cannot be justified on the basis of recent prices for such crops. As only a wide range of net choices and implementation methods are available, the choice of the most effective mix can be difficult. Producers are also met with strong diversity and an unpredictable migration of birds and accidents. This one, the management of bird issues is complex. Despite assessments of possible impact, it is impossible to determine how much attempt should be taken to bring the pest bird under control. Efficient decision-making involves the costs and advantages of multiple approaches to be evaluated and compared to that.

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Projections vary depending on: changes in nuisance bird species; temporary; fluctuations in patterns and number of birds; variations in land use in neighbouring areas; different economic circumstances of the individual growing; discrepancies in the type and quality of the product; crop; and disparities in growing activities. Regulations include rural managers and contractors Good Practice Operations Approaches to pest-related horticulture. We have objectively based data that the Government of the Province and Territorial Department workers would use it to generate extension materials. These materials may be used to inform farmers about how to solve specific bird problems concerning the agricultural sector using approaches that could be used. They are both individual and cost-effective. Annual population reporting is central to this strategic plan. Although the latest approach represents a recommended method, emerging technology can provide for future improvement. Understanding, too. Relevant impacts on harvests (including Aboriginal and recreational) are constrained by the nature of the results accessible on annual offtake. Ranging the management priorities of the Magpie Goose in the Northern Territories.  It does not, in itself, require extremely sophisticated knowledge of the organisms. Instead of that, recognises the value of upholding certain fundamental ecological values as habitat quality over a significant portion of the distribution of animals, and uses these values. Combination with insufficient knowledge of the genetics of the organisms to produce a system for assigning proportional degrees of risk to management activities impacting habitat. As these guidelines are specifically focused on the management of bird disruption to horticulture; the methods and techniques under review are indeed applicable to the management of other pest bird issues (NSW. Gov 2020).

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  • bird conservation outcomes by using an effective non-harmful method to deter endangered species. To what extent are the problem/target species (some are introduced like the starling, bulbul) having an impact on the native vulnerable species – which may 

Bird conservation outcomes by using an effective non-harmful method to deter endangered species: Typically, 30 per cent or more of 1,400 km2 of the major Magpie Goose flood risk ecosystem is located within current forests and reserves; in particular, Mary River National Park and Kakadu National Park. Magpie Geese are secured under the TPWC Act and their conservation status is assessed as “the least concern” in the NT. In several other countries, jurisdictions are considered as endangered due to past losses in diversity and availability in those countries. It is proposed as aquatic endangered species under the Community Environmental Protection and Biodiversity Act 1999 (EPBC Act). Magpie Geese has a rather high socio-economic quality and a renowned Upper End standing. Residents and visitors alike. They are both mythic animals for indigenous people and a big seasonal food source. Other sections of the party think that hunting is important. This has been a custom of this kind of harvest since the early 1900s.In some instances, the causes of Magpie Geese are economic harm to horticultural growth and the possibility for significant commercial damage to the geese. The management and regulation of all aspects of the use of protected species in the NT, particularly wild hunting, shall be implemented in compliance with the TWPC Act. The Department of Environment and Natural Resources Management (DENR) and the Department of Travel, Sports and Culture (DTSC) shall administer the TWPC Act.DENR shall be accountable for Parts 1 to 5 of Part IV of the Act, which shall entail the determination of the ecological impact of plants and animals (classification of wildlife species) and the establishment of management initiatives.

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The TWPC Act ensures that the conservation of biodiversity shall be carried out in a manner that is consistent with its position and facilitates the preservation of nature in its natural environment and the sustainable use of wildlife and its biodiversity. Management must aim to control or discourage some other act, inaction or activity that negatively impacts or is unlikely to adversely affect the capacity of wildlife to preserve its natural processes. The implementation of the software under this Act shall conform with these operational requirements. Section 66(1) of the TPWC Act bans the collection or destruction of endangered species without due process authorisation. The Minister shall declare that it is legal to kill the specified number of endangered animals. At the specified hours, at the fixed destination and by the specified means (section 45). These regulations shall be used to advise the periodic waterfowl hunting season and the conditions in which waterfowl shooting takes place. Both persons hunting waterfowl in conjunction with the established waterfowl hunting season must seek permission from the DTSC to take threatened wildlife. This is also a felony to keep Magpie Geese or their nests alive, except in accordance with the permit issued under section 43 of the TPWC Act. The privileges of Aboriginal people to take animals for ceremonial reasons, particularly hunting and food gathering, was specifically protected by section 122 of the TPWC Act (Blake 1964).

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To what extent are the problem/target species: The loss and fragmentation of habitat is the most important threat to endangered birds. The absence of forests, fields and other natural systems in farming \, construction and urbanisation, floods in marshes and other reservoirs, and logging limit the possible habitat. The ethical factor is a core component of the sustainable use of biodiversity. In the background of hunting, which involves awareness of animal health concerns, proper preparation for hunters, actions and tolerance among certain, as well as concerns related to the mitigation of environmental effects (e.g. recycling of waste, mitigating emissions and impacts on cars). The NT Weapons Council, a prominent entity representing the concerns of gun holders and buyers in the Northern Territories, has developed a Code of Ethics. As shooting waterfowl, the hunter need not burned down to flocks of flying waterfowl but should select a bird and fire only when waterfowl is within distance. The shooting should only be captured in waterfowl or in animals on or in waters after ensuring if it is secure to do so. Instead of developing a set of ethical guidelines within this document, it is better to ensure that the specific interests of waterfowl and Magpie Goose firing are covered by serving as a key that is used, agreed and dealt with by shooting.

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A main concern from the hunting group was for more clarity with respect to the setting of annual seasonal criteria, including bag cap. The evidence available shows that, while there is a chance of over-harvest. However, there are relatively limited cases where high harvests may have an effect on the phase of growth. The population and harvesting projections set the output limitations directly relevant to the prior population projection as calculated by the surveying. and the accepted threshold values. As with other native animals, birds help to establish a healthy population of their prey and predatory predators and after death, including fodder for vermin and soil organisms. Most birds are important for plant propagation via their functions as pollinators or seed dispersers (Davies 2008).


Blake, D., 1964, THE NORTHERN TERRITORY OF AUSTRALIA, The Lancet, 283(7348), pp.1435-1438.


NSW. Gov,2020, Department of primary industries. Viewed on 6th November.

Price, O., Woinarski, J. and Robinson, D., 1999, Very large area requirements for frugivorous birds in monsoon rainforests of the Northern Territory, Australia. Biological Conservation, 91(2-3), pp.169-180.

Price, O., 2004, Indirect evidence that frugivorous birds track fluctuating fruit resources among rainforest patches in the Northern Territory, Australia, Austral Ecology, 29(2), pp.137-144.

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