Saudi Arabia is an Islamic state whose judicial system is based on Islamic law commonly referred to as Sharia for criminal civil cases (Irawan, Jayusman & Hermanto, 2019). Saudi Arabia is an absolute hereditary monarchy state with a totalitarian context and Islamic lines and it is theocratic, whereby the royal family dominates the politics. There is the existence of a king who is both the head of the government and the state. The US legal system is a federal constitutional country, whereby the president is the head of state and government. It is democratic with individualism as a characteristic where people have freedom of expression and personal independence which greatly differs from what exists in Saudi Arabia. Iran is an Islamic theocratic state that relies on religious doctrines and guidelines. Clergy or religious leaders are part of the legal system. There is an existence of the president who and an overall supreme leader and makes the overall decisions. Iran relies on the sharia laws and has a constitution that is adopted through the process of referendum. Even though Iran is theocratic, there is more political freedom is compared to other theocratic nations.
Political ideologies describe the particular set of principles, doctrines, rules, or ethical ideas of a social movement, group, or country that depicts how society should operate and provides a certain way of politicking (Aguilera et al., 2020). A political ideology stipulates how a country or society should govern itself and indicates the guidelines with which it should do so.
The US defines pluralism that is the existence of two political ideologies represented by the Republican Party with its conservative guidelines that champion individualistic measures such as consumer choice and the Democratic Party with its liberal doctrines, that favors collectivists measures such as progressive taxation and strict environmental standards. Despite the existence of these two different ideologies, both the ideologies are stipulated to bring the best for the country in order to achieve these predefined ideologies. Ideological pluralism ensures a healthy competitive system that ensures that the people get to choose the type of ideology that best suits their interests and the interests of the nation in general. People have the right to choose to belong to any ideological group. It is normally observed that people or well-established business profiles tend to fund campaigns for their suitable choices that will influence policy formation and legislative process that will ensure their companies are pushed to greater heights rather than a political party that will undermine the well-being of their existence and growth in terms of business activities. The US is a democratic country with the principle that all citizens are politically and legally equal. A democratic government protects the rights of the people, political rights, free, fair, and credible elections.
Saudi Arabia is an absolute monarchial Islamic state that possesses a theocratic nature of political ideology whereby the role of the clergy is reflected in the government. The leader of the state and government is a hereditary king and will pass on the mantle to his immediate firstborn son. The royal family is the one to make most of the decisions and is the main political members of the state. The decisions made are a consensus of ideas from the royal family members. Saudi Arabia is a totalitarian country whereby a single entity is entitled to the duties of representing the whole people and nation. This generally defines a monopoly of power that regulates the majority if not all public and private life. This type of ideology is seen to be oppressive since the ruling party seems to undermine the welfare of its people while enriching themselves and those around them. The citizens often have no right to publicly condemn the injustices done to them by the ruling people.
Iran is a theocratic state but with more political freedom as compared to the other Islamic theocratic states. Its political ideologies are more of a combination of several ideologies. Theocratic ideology is the main one whereby the religious leaders form part of the legal system and are involved in major decisions about the state. There is also the president and the supreme leader who is the overall leader of the state.
Political Environment defines the interlude of political ideologies, legal systems, legalities of legality that generate the behavior of a country’s political stability (Deng et al., 2018). The political environment determines the stability of a country, its openness to foreign investors, and how the ruling government treats its resources. Saudi Arabia is a collectivist country that does not advocate for freedom. The country greatly limits private property rights. The head of the state makes the decisions that are to be accepted and followed by everyone’s failure to which attracts punishments. Collectivist nations have the agenda of promoting social equality, income quality, and the welfare of everyone is catered for. The US is an individualistic country that advocates for democracy and hence the freedom of its citizens to make their own economic decisions. It has the idea of laissez-faire which describes that the government should not interfere with the citizens’ business affairs. Iran as a theocratic nation possesses an individualistic nature where the market prices and activities are controlled by the head of the state.
This defines the guidelines that regulate behavior, the processes of structuring such rules and operations on law enforcement. This also involves the ways of resolving cases pertaining to the law (Calve, & Coleman, 2016). A country’s legal system is very essential in attracting foreign investors. The investors normally want a stable legal system that advocates for the protection of their investments since they would not want to be affected by problems regarding unscrupulous legal systems. These legal systems vary from one country to another depending on the country’s traditions, political system, religion, and usage. Modern legal systems are characterized by criminal, civil, and constitutional laws. Saudi Arabia is characterized by a legal system known as theocratic law that majorly relies on religious beliefs and doctrines. These laws are with the religious leaders who control business operations and social interactions based on the interpretation of the sacred articles. The US relies on a legal system known as common law. This law is based on traditions, rulings by precedent judges and hence have been adopted as law and usage. A court system has been established that relies on statutory values that are within the stipulated guidelines in the constitution. Iran on the other hand relies on a theocratic system that is formed based on religious texts that have been interpreted by the clergy. However, Iran is a fundamentalist Islamic state with modern social ideology.
Generally, every country has a different way of doing things. The legal and political systems of a country are essential in determining the way a country operates from leadership to economic issues. It is worth noting that the success of a nation depends on how it runs its activities. Saudi Arabia and Iran are both theocratic Islamic states that have almost similar legal and political systems and their laws rely on the interpretation of sacred texts and articles as the clergy are part of the ruling system. The United States of America is a democratic country that relies on common law which is from its traditions and precedent legal rulings that have been adopted as law.
Aguilera, R., Duran, P., Heugens, P. P. M. A. R., Sauerwald, S., Turturea, R., & VanEssen, M. (2020). State ownership, political ideology, and firm performance around the world. Journal of World Business, 101113.
Calvi, J. V., & Coleman, S. (2016). American law and legal systems. Taylor & Francis.
Deng, X., Low, S. P., Zhao, X., & Chang, T. (2018). Identifying micro variables contributing to political risks in international construction projects. Engineering, construction and architectural management.
Irawan, I., Jayusman, J., & Hermanto, A. (2019). Fatwa Contribution to the Development of Islamic Law (Study of The Fatwa Institute of Saudi Arabia). FITRAH: Jurnal Kajian Ilmu-ilmu Keislaman, 5(2), 181-206.Order Now