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Posted on October 25, 2022 by Cheapest Assignment

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Paul Pancake is a 22-year-old Australian, feeling jubilant on being selected to play tennis in the Commonwealth Games. Paul uses his right arm as his “service arm” (meaning he is using this serving arm significantly more than the left arm in training and games).

Question 1

During his health check up to enter the team, Paul needs to undertake a series of physical examinations (8 marks total)

  1. Paul’s biceps brachii circumference on the right arm measures 38 cm while the one on the left side measures 34 cm. Using your knowledge on the musculoskeletal systems, discuss if the humerus on the right side will be the same as that on the left side. Justify your answer. (2 marks)
  2. After drawing his blood for analysis, the nurse records his blood pH = 7.25. Discuss which ion is in higher quantity than normal in relation to blood pH and discuss if this pH is in the normal/healthy range (2 marks)
  3. Paul does not know his blood type so the nurse sends his blood to the pathology lab for testing. Paul’s blood type results come back as A negative. Explain what would happen if Paul needed a blood transfusion and was given B positive instead of A negative. (4 marks)

Question 2

A few weeks later and after receiving a clear health check, Paul is ready to get back to his training. To increase his fitness, Paul is planning to run 15 km frequently. All the questions below are related to Paul’s hamstring muscles while running: (16.5 marks total)

  1. Discuss ONE LOCAL method of blood autoregulation occurring while his Hamstring muscles are contracting. (3 marks)
  2. Describe and justify ONE change of PRELOAD occurring when Paul is exercising compared to when he is lying down on his bed. (2 marks)
  3. With reference to the exchange of gases, discuss the type of respiration occurring in the hamstring when Paul is exercising. Justify your answer. (3 marks)
  4. Explain the significance of the RBC in the transport of O2 to Paul’s hamstrings when Paul is exercising. (2.5 marks)
  5. Describe how the haemoglobin-oxygen saturation will differ in Paul during the time he is running compared to the time he is resting. (2 marks)
  6. When running, his blood pressure reaches 190/102 mmHg. Discuss how the baroreceptor reflex will result in autonomic responses returning the blood pressure to normal homeostatic levels when Paul stops running. (4 marks)

Question 3

At the end of his run, Paul’s coach invites him to jump in an “ice bath” consisting of cold water with ice cubes, which is supposed to help with muscle soreness and recovery after strenuous exercise. (6 marks total)

  1. When entering the “ice bath”, discuss how the sensations related to cold will be processed in Paul’s body in terms of receptor, type of fibers, spinal pathways and control centre involved (mentioning specific location of the control centre). (2.5 marks)
  2. When Paul is resting in the bath, his hamstring muscles are relaxing. Organise the events noted below leading to the relaxation of Paul’s leg muscles. An event can be used only once, and the last process is indicated in bold. (0.5 mark for each correct answer, 3.5 marks)
  • Acetylcholine stops being released in the synaptic cleft by motor neuron.
  • Troponin/Tropomyosin complex returns to the position where myosin binding sites on actin are blocked
  • Reuptake of intracellular calcium by calcium ATPase pump
  • Sarcomere returns to initial position with extended length
  • Depolarisation of the cell will cease to be transmitted along the sarcolemma
  • Sarcoplasmic reticulum stops releasing calcium
  • Muscle relaxes
  • Activation of nicotinic receptor is stopping

Question 4

When coming out of the bath, Paul is alerted to the presence of a red belly snake nearby. He immediately jumps out of the bath and runs away from the snake in a panic. (11 marks)

  1. Describe the state of the TWO divisions of the autonomic nervous system in Paul’s body while running away from the snake in a state of panic. (2 marks)
  2. When Paul is running away from the snake, his breathing rate goes from 10 to 30 breaths per minute. Considering Paul’s anatomical dead space is 150 mL and his tidal volume while running is 460 mL, calculate his alveolar ventilation rate while running away from the snake. Show your calculations. (2 mark)
  3. The coach comes and finally helps Paul who has been given a brown paper bag to breathe in and out of. Discuss what will occur to levels of CO2 in Paul’s blood if Paul is breathing in and out of the bag for too long and discuss consequences of this event on Paul’s blood pressure (including changes in stroke volume and heart rate)? Describe all receptors (and their locations) and mechanisms involved related to the question for full marks. (7 marks)

Question 5

Just before the Commonwealth Games, Paul’s team stays for two weeks in the French Alps at 1600m of altitude above sea level. Discuss the effects of this stay on Paul’s blood cells and the potential consequences of this stay for Paul’s game performance in London. (2 marks)

Question 6

If the motor neuron controlling internal intercostal muscles is damaged will Paul survive and can he continue to play the tennis match at the Commonwealth games in London. Justify the answer. (4 marks)

Question 7

Paul’s 79-year-old grandmother Ella Eclair is coming to watch the Commonwealth games in London. Complete the Table below by placing either Paul (when playing a game) or Ella’s (sitting and watching the game after lunch) name in Column A for each statement made in Column B. (0.5 for each answer; 4 marks total)

Column A Person (Paul OR Ella) Column B: Statements
Ella Decrease of neuron density in brain
  Higher levels of fibrinogen in blood
  Thicker left ventricular wall
  Increased amount of fibrous tissue in sinoatrial node
  Increased thickness of heart valves
  Decreased glycogenesis
  Increased stiffness of lung tissue
  Decreased blood flow towards digestive system
  Increased osteoclast activity compared to osteoblast activity

Question 8

Ella Eclair,79 years old, is experiencing a decrease of respiration rate. Using the parameters listed below, describe what happens when her alveolar ventilation decreases below the normal range. (6 marks total)

Parameter Column 2
Event Decrease of respiration rate below normal
A. Change that has occurred (i.e.,what stimulus/stimuli notify the central nervous system about the change that has occurred?) (1 mark)  
B. Type of receptor detecting the change (1 mark)  
C. Site of control centre (1 mark)  
D. Effector location (1 mark)  
E. Result/Consequence (1 mark)  
F. Feedback type (negative or positive) (1 mark)  

Question 9

Ella Eclair’s favourite movie is (1968;

The story line is quite interesting: a scientist is nearly assassinated, and the only way to save him is to shrink a submarine and a crew of scientists to microscopic size and inject into his blood stream to remove the blood clot that threatens the life of the scientist. (7.5 marks total)

  1. Let’s assume that you need to produce a map for the crew, who are very good at physics but have no understanding of the anatomy of the human body at They know that they will be injected into the brachia! artery of the victim, and they want to know what types of blood vessels and which heart chambers they will need to pass along (in correct order) before reaching one of the major arteries of the brain. Note that they can only move in the direction of the blood flow and not backwards. (3.5 marks)
  2. The crew are briefed that there is a major problem with their submarine: it may break up if the velocity of blood flow around it is too high.You need to instruct them and explain which part of the vascular system is particularly dangerous for them-e., in which blood vessels are they expected to encounter the highest velocity blood flow. What would you say? Explain your answer by discussing the factor(s) that affect(s) the velocity of blood flow. (2 marks)
  3. One of the crew members suggest that they could take a shortcut and move from the right side of the heart to the left side; although they are not sure if this can be done at the level of the atria or at the level of the ventricl Explain if this assertion is correct and identify the region of the heart where this shortcut can be made. (2 marks)


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