IMPACT OF LEADERSHIP STYLE IN PROJECT SUCCESS

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MIS610 Advanced Professional Practice

Abstract

Purpose: The purpose of this study is to identify the true impact of the leadership style on the success of the project. This is done with respect to the different leadership style, and the role played by it in the successful completion of any task. The different styles of leadership, such as democratic, transformational, transactional, authoritative styles would be discussed to assess their effectiveness in the success of a project.

Research Methodology: In order to conduct this research in a successful way, use of the qualitative type of data was done. The researcher made use of the secondary form of data collection, which consisted of online books, journals, publications, articles and other work of literature which were published earlier.

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Findings: The findings identified from the different source of the material concluded that different styles of leadership hold a great impact on the success of the project. There are different styles of leadership, each having a different impact on the working of the project. Among all of them, the democratic style of leadership is stated to have the most positive impact on project success. This is because employees like to be part of the decision-making process and offer clarity about the roles and responsibilities help them perform their work in a more effective way. Among all the other styles Laissez-faire leadership and authoritative leadership are the one which has the most negative effect on the performance of the employing impacting the result of the project. In addition to leadership style, leadership experience, leadership control, the sector activities of the project and the leadership skills are also key elements that have an impact on the success of a project.

Recommendations: It is recommended that the scope of the project, the timeline and budget and the activities which are part of the project should also be considered while making an assessment about a project. One should not completely rely on just the leadership style, and other elements should also be evaluated before undertaking any activity which can have an impact on the success or failure of a project.

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Acknowledgement

I cannot express enough gratitude towards the people who made the research project a possibility. This would include Dr Carmen Reaiche, Project Coordinator for the constant support and encouragement showered on me. I would also like to thank my family, friends, teachers and all the responsible parties who helped me along the way. I would also like to showcase my gratitude towards my colleagues for their invaluable advice and support. Many thanks to all the people who were part of the process. I would also like to state that I am responsible for all the errors and mistakes which may be found in the research. In the end, I would like to thank the almighty God for his constant blessings and who made everything possible for which I would always be indebted to him.

Chapter 1: Introduction

1.1 Overview of the research

The success of the project depends on a wide variety of factors. A key aspect of this is the impact that leadership holds on the result of a project (Joslin and Müller, 2016). It is the vision and the path established by a leader that defines the way a project is taken forward, which is vital for its success. There are varied kinds of projects which require a different type of leadership style. It is based on the situation and the desired outcome that needs to be achieved, which shapes up the leadership style and vision towards the successful completion of the project.

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The main research problem is that there are different leadership styles available.  Application of the wrong leadership style has a huge impact on a project leading it to the path of failure. On the other hand, monitoring and visioning of a project under the control of a competent leader can help in achieving the desired results in a better way. This clearly states the importance and role played by a competent leader in this path (Dias and Borges, 2017). With the growth of the business, business issues and problems are also growing. There are numerous projects available, and lack of the right leadership impacts their success to a great extent. This project aims at addressing the problem of the way malicious acts and selfish activities of the leaders have led to the failure of the projects costing the companies to huge regard. The study would address the topic of the way a confident and smart leader through the right leadership style can offer the right vision and structure that is vital for the success of the project. This is completely opposite to the case when an inadequate and incompetent leader takes on the project and use it for personal gain rather than mould and shape it as per the required need. This research study would help in examining the different aspects of the leadership style and the impact that these styles hold on the success of the project along with stating the path or the course that can be taken into consideration for different project succession (Thoha and Avandana, 2020). Thus, the main aim of the project is to evaluate the true impact that different forms of leadership styles offer to the success of the project. Moreover, the leadership style which makes the most positive impact in terms of the success of the project would be identified.   

1.3 Research aims

The main aim of this research is to identify the various areas which are vital in the success of a project and the way a project manager impacts the project and its success. In addition to this, identifying the different leadership styles which are used by different project managers would be identified and assessed.

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1.4 Research objectives and questions

Research question:

Does leadership have an impact on project outcomes?

If so, what types of leadership style drive the outcome of a project to be successful?

Research objective:

  • To create a model to state the show the way a project manager’s leadership style influences teamwork and the success of the project. 
  • To identify the role played by a project manager’s leadership style in the success of a project.
  • To assess the connection between the different factors that influences teamwork and project success.

1.5 Justification of the research and its significance

The prime reason for undertaking this research is because leadership style holds a great impact on a project. This makes it quite crucial for society as a whole. This study would be pivotal with respect to the influence that leadership can hold on recruiting or hiring of the competent and right project managers to ensure the success of the project (Cleveland and Cleveland, 2020). The result of the research can be established as the base to justify the need to have a better-skilled, qualified and competent leader for the completion of the project in the desired way.

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1.6 Research methodology overview

In order to carry out this research, the use of a qualitative method of data is used. This is done in order to ensure that the research objectives are fulfilled in the best possible way. In addition to this, secondary data is used for the purpose of the research to make use of the previous work of literature, articles, publications and other material in order to offer to take the research in the direction.

1.7 Report chapter outline

In order to carry out this research in a successful way, the research has been divided into various chapters. The first chapter offers an introduction about the research with topics such as research background, research problem, research aim and goals along with the structure of the research. This has been followed by the literature review that discusses the various elements, such as the different leadership theories and styles that can be implemented on a project. The aim of this is to offer a better understanding of the topic in order to answer the research problem and satisfy the research objectives to the best possible way. The third chapter has been designed keeping the research methodology into consideration. This would state the research approach, design, data collection method that has been used and data analysis and ethical consideration which would be conducted depending on the research problem and further develop it. The fourth chapter includes the data analysis section, which includes the process of analysis, which is undertaken to analyse the data collected and evaluate it in order to generate a suitable result based on it. The last chapter would hold the conclusion section, which is vital to assess the entire research and identify and whether the data collected validate the hypotheses put forward in the research.

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1.8 Summary

From the data and information collected and analyzed for the purpose of this research, it can be stated that HR planning is one important factor which has an impact on the performance of the project. The type of the project, the degree of experience and expertise are also crucial in influencing the teamwork and the success of the project (Conger, 2015). In addition to this, compensation also holds great influence on the performance of the employees, which in turn has an impact on the leadership style and project success. Thus, it is evident that a vast number of factors are related to the success of the project.

Chapter 2: Literature review

2.1 Introduction

A literature review is the most integral part of a research report. This is because it states a great understanding of the topic through the previous work of literature which is analyzed and assessed as per the need of the study (Puranik, 2017). This is done by analyzing the works of literature which involved books, online journals, publications and online articles which serves the purpose of the research. With respect to this research, the previous work would be analyzed and assessed in the most appropriate manner so that one can understand the role of leadership style and the various elements related to it for the success of the project.

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2.2 Project Performance

The success of a project is not a one-day activity. A lot of planning and execution is required to make any project a success. Factors such as the development of the project objectives, the scope of work, assigning roles and responsibilities, constant communication and evaluation of the work are some key steps that is need to be followed for the success of a project. With the evolution of time and the increase in the complexity of the business, the success of a project has changed a lot. There are different factors which are considered to make a project successful. A project consists of a wide variety of activities (Fiaz et al., 2017). The successful completion of each of these activities or the maximum of them is vital for a project to be considered part of the successful category. With the change of time, the criteria defining the success of a project has also changed. In the past one has witnessed many different projects being prepared and completed under the competent leadership of project managers. There are certain critical factors which are considered to be an integral part of the success of the project. This helps in determining whether a project is successful or not. This is because one cannot use just cost or the time or the quality achieved as the basis for the success of a project. This made it crucial to set some solid and valid points which could be used as the basis for the success of a project. 

The magnitude of the projects and the work done in them in many regards have changed over the course of time. This has made the role and responsibilities of the project manager evolved over time, making it vital for them to hold certain key skills and traits which sets them apart from others (Raziq et al., 2018). These project managers are majorly concerned with the completion of two prime functions. This includes the right management of the various projects under them and delivering the required change as per the situation. This states the two views that a project has – input and output-oriented views. Both of these factors measure project success on a different basis. The input view considers the success of a project on the basis of the greater good that it offers. The output-oriented view states the success on the basis of the success criteria established in relation to it. These are based on the criteria which are stated to add some value to the project, making it crucial for its success. Out of all the key factors responsible for the success of the project, leadership holds the top position and the leadership style determines the way a project takes leading to the path of success.

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2.3 Leadership 

Leadership is the way a leader governs and guides the employees towards the achievement of the set objectives of the company (Silva, 2016). One cannot undermine the role that leadership holds in the success of a project. Leadership holds great importance in the present time as it influences the work of the people setting the path of the project. The traits of a leader state characteristics and qualities such as them being a positive thinker, an optimist, a visionary, great business mind, great communication and management skill along with being a great negotiator and a good time manager are some key elements which can help in shaping a project towards the path of success. In addition to this, it is the duty of the leader to assess the capabilities and skills of the employees to ensure that they hold the required skills and they are well trained in order to enhance their performance which in turn would lead to the success of the project (Wen et al., 2019). 

Leadership differs from person to person and situation to situation. This makes it quite personal and an elusive topic. It is the leader who plays a vital role in building the organization and the people in it. In today’s fast changing and dynamic environment, one requires a leader who is visionary and can transform his way of working as per the need of the situation. This highlights the crucial role that leadership holds in the success of any business or company. A project can take any turn and hence one requires the leader to be proactive in terms of thinking far ahead of the situation and be available with all the possible solutions needed to make any project a success. Thus, the leaders are expected to follow a vast number of roles and duties which are vital for the successful management of any project.

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There are major four aspects of leadership which include the project sectors, the structure of the project, the life cycle of the project and the leadership style that leads to the success of any project (Ng and Walker, 2008). Thus, it can be stated that each of these elements, in its own way, holds a significant role in project success. In order to consider a project a successful one, a model is selected which meets up with the different set criteria and standard. The set standard required to match up are –

Holism

It is the type of model in which all the respective set criteria are evaluated in the right measure.

Realism

In the realism model, it is mandated not to tamper with or distort the results. Hierarchical and non-hierarchical models are also to be noted. This model states to offer equal weights or a percentage to each and every activity undertaken, which is not the case with the first model. In the modern-day, most successful projects would be seen to be unsuccessful. These are vital for measuring the success of the project in the changing business environment.

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2.4 Leadership skill

According to Lategan and Fore (2015), leadership style holds great importance on the success of a project. There are different traits and skills which the leader needs to possess based on the political and interpersonal skills to carry out any project. Skills such as communication, negotiation, self-awareness, ownership are some dimensions which should be part of the skills of the project manager and the way they conduct themselves. In the opinion of Gębczyńska (2019), different leadership skills in their own dimension affect the success of the project. 

Leadership based on contingency 

The project is changing the world at a rapid pace. One needs to be aware and ready to lead and guide the team as per the situation and make use of the right style of leadership as per the requirement. This requires the leader to be charismatic and make an impression on others in a way that makes them feel motivated through him. The leader should have the skill to assess the situation and influence the employees in the right way, which helps them to tackle the situation and achieve the objectives (Le Blanc et al., 2020).

Leadership based on charisma

A leader needs to have the right communication skills and the charm through which he can persuasive the employees and align them towards the achievement of the set objectives. This is a crucial skill as projects may undergo different circumstances and crisis, and hence one requires a leader who holds the skill to state the right path to the employees in the time of need. This is also important so that the employees do not feel intimated and concentrate on making the project a success (Grabo et al., 2017)

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Leadership based on emotional intelligence

Emotional intelligence is a crucial skill or quality for a leader to possess. The leader with the right emotional development seeks to apply it effectively during management projects. The project manager assesses the situation, the need of the employees and the support that can be offered to them for them to work as per the set plans. According to Maqbool et al., (2017), emotional intelligence is considered to be an integral element for successful project management. This is because one can experience a shift in the business structure, and hence there is diversity in the workforce, making it difficult for a leader to manage and balance things out. Emotional intelligence helps in this regard by identifying the need of the employees and the organization and offering a suitable style leading to the success of the project.

2.5 Leadership styles 

Leadership style is a vital determinant with respect to the success of a project. Leadership is quite essential for the management of the organization and the projects undertaken under it (Pretorius et al., 2018). The leadership style selected and applied in the company plays a crucial role in the way things work out in the organization. It is because it offers the direction about the way the employees should be motivated and the direction that one can take in implementing the plans for the success of the organization. There are different styles of leadership which are stated to have a significant impact, both positive and negative on the success of the project. The different leadership styles that can have an impact on the working of a project are:

  • Democratic leadership – Democratic leadership is the one in which the people of the group or the team are more actively involved in the project. The responsibilities are distributed among all along with including them in all the key aspects of the organization (English, 2019). A successful leader is the one who involves the people in the decision-making and working of the project. This makes the employees feel part of the project, which is vital for making the project a success. This helps in sharing clarity on the roles and responsibilities that need to be fulfilled for the project. This style of leadership will guide the employees but will also help them in taking their own decision which holds great value for the growth and success of any organization. According to Woods (2020), this style also helps in putting the good ideas of the employees into motion which support the teamwork leading to the achievement of the organizational goals.
  • Charismatic leadership – Charismatic leadership is a style of leadership in which the leader encourages and motivate the employees in order to improve the work and achieve the set goals. This helps in bringing the team together and improving the overall performance, which is crucial for a project. This style of leadership helps in building innovation and confidence in the employees (Antonakis, 2017). It is crucial in a difficult situation as a leader is expected to bring the team out of any such situation, and hence this style of leadership plays a critical role in such a situation. The leader tries and aligns the organizational values and belief with that of the followers, making it an effective approach for the success of an organization.
  • Transformational leadership – Transformational leadership is the one in which the leader identifies the need and aspirations of the employees and creates a connection with the organization. This is done by creating an experience that motivates the employees and boosts their morale, making them feel enthusiast to be working under a competent leader. As per Aga et al., (2016), this helps in the development of satisfaction and trust among the employees and the leader. By following such style of leadership, respect for each other is developed which is important for any project as this states the level of attention and effort that an employee might put in for the successful completion of the project.
  • Laissez-Faire leadership – The leaders following the Laissez-faire leadership allows the followers to make their own decision.  This is completely opposite to authoritative leadership in which the leaders put on his decisions on others (El Toufaili, 2018). In this style of leadership, the leaders answer all the questions, offers all the information and offer the required assistance, which helps in the final decision making. 
  • Transactional leadership – This type of leadership style highlights the connection that takes place between a leader and the follower. In such style, the followers are offered rewards for their great performance, making it an extrinsic motivation style which can be in any external form. This act as a booster to the morale of the employees, making them feel values and important and acknowledging their contribution (Aga, 2016). This makes them work with more zeal and put more efforts in the successful completion of the project. 
  • Authoritarian leadership – In this style of leadership, the leaders decides everything and expects the followers to follow it. The group is assigned the tasks without discussing making it a point of conflict between them. There is a lack of communication which makes it difficult for any project being led by this style to be successful (Banks et al., 2017).

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2.6 Conceptual framework

IMPACT OF LEADERSHIP STYLE IN PROJECT SUCCESS

Figure 1: Conceptual framework of dependent and independent variables of leadership

A conceptual framework states the path that can be taken for better understanding of a topic. It can be indicated from the framework that there are numerous dependent and independent variables which constitute to be part of the success of a project (Cote, 2017). These include leadership experience, leadership skills, leadership control and leadership style as the independent variables, which varies on different factors and the elements, which in turn have an impact on the performance of the project. Skills such as the experience that the leader holds, the way they communicate and other skills state the way the relationship is built with the employees. The knowledge and skill that a leader holds, the quality of work they have work and the experience over the years contribute on the work which is vital as experience constitute a crucial base for the project success.

The control that a leader holds on the employees, and the project also stands a vital position for the success of the project (Owusu-Manu et al., 2020). This is done in relation to aspect such as financial audit, performance management, and stating the standards that need to be achieved. The most crucial independent element among all is the leadership style which differs from leader to leader stating the path of the project. Each of these independent variables, in the combination defines a project success which is dependent on the successful and right execution of each of these variables. In addition to these variables, factors such as the scope of the project, the objectives that need to be achieved, the time frame allotted for completion, the resources available are other factors which is closely related in making a project successful. This states the connection that the different elements hold with each other as an influence and thus on the project success.

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It can be stated that in the time of project management transformation, strategic orientation was high. This brought a lot of changes making the world a more complex to work in. The different factors, when taken into consideration, holds its own impact on relation to the leadership style and the effect it has on the success of a project.

2.7 Relationship between leadership style and the success of a project

As stated by Liphadzi et al., (2015), the competencies of a leader and the leadership style followed hold great importance in the success of a project. There are many pieces of research which confirm that there is a correlation between them as the right leadership helps in reducing or managing the complexity of the project leading to successful project management. Communication and coordination among the team are also very important for the success of the project. A team requires a leader who has the fire and zeal to make a project successful while he should have the power to influence the employees to make them feel motivated towards the achievement of the set goals and objectives of the company. A leader needs to get the work done in an efficient and effective manner in the desired timeline. This requires one to hold the right leadership style and skill with a clear vision and great communication skill. Thus, it can be stated that leadership style holds the top-most position in relation to the success of the project.

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Chapter 3: Research Methodology

3.1 Introduction

A research methodology is the section of a research report would state a better understanding of all the key aspects related to the research trajectories which have been made part of the study. It acts as the guideline of the study, which states the path that needs to be undertaken for the successful completion of the research (Glesne, 2016). 

3.2 Research design

In order to carry out the research, the use of the deductive theory is done. This is done in order to analyze and assess the pre-existing theories through observations and develop new theories. In this researcher has studied the different existing theories and concepts related to leadership style and the impact of the same on project management and the success of the project. 

In addition to this, exploratory research design has been used to undertake this study. This is vital as it holds great relevancy with the subject of the research. Due to the qualitative nature of the study, exploratory research design would be most suitable. It will allow stating the different critical success factors and the impact that the leadership style holds on the success of the project (Flick, 2017). This would be done in a very detailed way making exploratory research design appropriate for the same.

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3.3 Research type

Research methodology segment helps in offering insights about the process that is being undertaken by the researcher in order to carry out the research. Research type states the base that is being set as per the need of the study. These are basically of two types – qualitative research and quantitative research type. This research consisted of qualitative research, although the aim was to use mixed research consisting of both qualitative and quantitative research type. But due to shortage of time in order to complete the research, qualitative research type was preferred. 

3.4 Data collection

Data collection is the aspect of the research process, which the research uses in order to collect the data and information for the purpose of the study (Billups, 2019). It is vital as it sets the base of the research on the basis of which suitable analysis and conclusion is done. Data is majorly collected through two methods – primary data collection and secondary data collection method. Secondary data collection is the data that is already available and used as per the need of the research. This data is not completely relevant for the objective of the study as the aim of such research is different. The major source of secondary source includes previous work of literature such as online articles, published journals, books, online search, different certified and authentic websites among others.

In order to conduct this research, the secondary form of data collection was used. This was done to observe the work of literature collected previously (Johhson and Sylvia, 2018). This constituted of and data from the authentic articles, published newsletters, verified journals and , research papers from across the globe. The data and information from the previous work were analyzed and evaluated thoroughly in relation to the leadership style and its relation to the success of the project. The secondary data collection will also crucial as this would help in detailed and proper understanding of the research study.

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3.5 Data analysis

In order to analyze the secondary data collected, the researcher read and evaluated them as per the aim of the research. This was done to set credibility to the research done previously, which is done based on the research question that needs to be answered with the help of this research (Sayaji, 2020).

3.6 Ethical consideration

There are chances that a researcher might encounter a lot of issues related to the validity and reliability of the research. Thus, the researcher ensures that the data was collected and analyzed in the most appropriate method. The major aim has been on collecting and analyzing of the secondary data. It was ensured that verified and authentic work of literature was used in order to successfully completing the study. Moreover, the researcher has offered complete reference to the previous work of literature for their contribution to the research. It was also taken care that no plagiarism of any kind was present in the report (Ngozwana, 2018). 

3.7 Limitation of the study

The biggest limitation of the research study undertaken is that only qualitative data is used for the purpose of the research. This ignores the quantitative data which would offer the real number and statistics about the success of the project, which would have taken place with the use of the right leadership styles. Another big limitation of the study was the use of only qualitative data, whereas, it was thought of using a mixed research method entitling both qualitative and quantitative data for the research. But due to the shortage of time, only qualitative data was preferred. In addition to this, secondary data was also included for the successful completion of the research study. Identifying the right works of literature and maintaining their relevancy with the subject of the research was a huge limitation for the research. This is because it involved a lot of reading and research which can go in any direction. The lack of knowledge and understanding of the research was also a huge difficulty undergone during the course of the research. 

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3.8 Timeline of the research

IMPACT OF LEADERSHIP STYLE IN PROJECT SUCCESS

Figure 2 : Gantt chart 

IMPACT OF LEADERSHIP STYLE IN PROJECT SUCCESS

Fig 3. Timeline period

As per the stated timeline, the time allotted for the research is the period of the 3rd trimester of 2020 which included the entire project elements such as project heading finalizing, project analysis, project proposal and complete analysis along with the preparation of the final report.

Chapter 4: Research results and discussion

4.1 Introduction

In this section of the research, data analysis is conducted on the data and information collected. With respect to this research, this would be done on the basis of the secondary data that is collected for the research. A series of different work of literature would be analyzed and assessed as per the research objective to serve the purpose of the study.

4.2 Research results 

The data and information acquired through the secondary data of the different work of literature available were analyzed to gather a better understanding of the research study.

One of the stated works of the literature analyzed concluded that the hierarchical model was the most suitable model with respect to the most appropriate model in regard to the success of the project. On the basis of the literature, 26 critical factors were discovered with respect to this. The field research was, used in order to justify or reject different prepositions which was used as a basis to state the leadership styles. This was built on the research that was conducted taking a Kenyan ICT company as the base for reference of the study. The organization made use of the Scandinavian management style while focusing on constant learning and satisfaction of the workers. In order to carry out this research, the use of qualitative research methodology was done (Ware, 2018). This included both open-ended and well-structured interviews in order to gather and collect the relevant required data. For the purpose of the research, the population selected were the retired project managers of the company. A total of seventy was selected out of which five were selected with the help of the Project Management Office. This was done as the five respondents offered a similar structure of the company’s management. The interview conducted had the concept of two plus one more phase.

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In order to conduct the interview, the first phase consisted of the open-ended interview to state the impact on the success of the project. The project manager highlighted the way they could influence project success which stated the hierarchical model as a success evaluation basis. This helped in identifying three criteria for the success of the project – project triangle, client satisfaction, and stakeholder satisfaction. In addition to this, the managers were asked the way they can ensure success, and they were asked to define the way they can ensure the criterion of the success of the project in their own way (Radujković. and Sjekavica, 2017).

The second phase of the interview consisted of a well-structured interview. The main goal of conducting this interview was to identify the leadership style suitable in terms of the success of the project. This was done with the help of critical success factors found in a list of 47 different factors. The project managers selected were asked to rank the factors on a scale of one to ten. The aim of this was to identify six factors which were the most crucial and noteworthy in terms of the critical success factors for the project. These six would have 2-4 issues which were found most important. In this regard, the project managers were asked to state the different types of success criteria that in their opinion, made an impact on the success of the project.

Another piece of the literature analyzed stated that leadership style has a significant impact on the organizational performance in both a negative and positive way. According to (), there are different styles of leadership, few of which holds a more negative impact than others in relation to inducing the employees to perform as per the set expectations. It also stated the different leadership styles that made the employees of the banks in Nigeria feel more motivated and helped them perform their work in a more effective way. The different hypothesis was tested for the same stating the true impact of the leadership styles on the performance of the employees in an organization (Mkheimer, 2018).

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In order to carry out the research, the researcher made use of the questionnaire, which was shared among the target audience. The participants included people who were part of the selected twenty banks in Lagos metropolis, Lagos State, Nigeria. These people belonged to different hierarchical position such as branch managers, heads of operations, junior staff, and accountants. These people were interviewed face to face. A well-structured questionnaire was part of the data collection. Out of all the respondents, sixty questionnaires were collected by the researcher. In order to collect the response and assess the thinking of the respondents, the leadership scale was used. This contained frequency behavior stating five bases of Likert’s five-point scoring such as including “never”, little”, “occasionally”, “often” and “always”. The questionnaire prepared for the purpose of the research contained questions related to leadership and the way they contribute or help the employees in the successful completion of the project. The response received was analyzed and assessed using Pearson product moment correlation to state the relationship between the organizational performance and the leadership style (Ojokuku et al., 2012). In addition to this, regression analysis was considered to assess the consequence of leadership style on the performance of the followers in the organization.

The response received on testing the hypothesis on the basis of the questionnaire that held the response of the people working in the banks stated that the respective leadership style has its  own set of pros and cons in terms of the impact on the organizational performance and the leadership style dimensions. In terms of the negative correlation, leadership styles such as charismas style of leadership, transactional style of leadership, and bureaucratic style of leadership did not offer any help to the organizational performance stating the negative effect they had on it. They reduce the morale of the employees, which may lead to high turnover intension in the banks. On the other hand, leadership style such as the transformational style of leadership, autocratic style of leadership and democratic style of leadership is stated to have a positive impact on the performance of the organization helping the employees to perform as per the desired plan (Salehzadeh, 2017). It was an indicator of the different dependent and independent variables which counted for good leadership style. This is a clear indication that leadership style plays a key role in how the employees perform or how the project moves forward.

Ethical Dilemma

A crucial piece of literature discussed the effect of leadership and the impact of the same on the performance of the Compassion International projects in Kenya, Kitui County. The research was based on stating the true effect that different variables and leadership style had on the working of the people in the organization. In order to carry out this research, a total of 160 respondents were selected, which included project managers, project team members, community leaders and project beneficiaries. These were people involved in the implementation of the project in the organization. On the basis of the stratified sampling method, a sample of 113 respondents was selected. Out of these 98 questionnaires which were completed were considered for the final analysis (Mary, 2018). A well-structured questionnaire was selected as the means to collect the data for the purpose of the study. This contained both open and close-ended questions. 

The first phase of the interview consisted of the general demographic questions stating the gender, age, job title and other such information about the respondent. The second phase consisted of the descriptive part of the different variables which are vital for undertaking the study. This majorly focused on the leadership skills, style, experience and the control that it has on the employee and the working. The response received stated that leadership experience does hold much relevance on the performance of the employees or the success of the project in the organization (Khan et al., 2014). It was found that one requires a certain level of experience to be a great leader and as and when one grows in this regard, they become a better leader, which is pivotal in the journey of a project. This is based on the quality of knowledge and skill that the project manager gained over his course of work which can be put into action while implementing other projects under his guidance.

Application of Epidemiological Methods

The response received with respect to leadership control stated with mean of 6.07, and a standard deviation of 2.57 showcased that clarity in terms of roles and responsibilities and the right leadership control leads to coordination of activities leading to the successful achievement of the set objectives of the project. The control by the leader would help in effective utilization of the resources along with maintaining the quality of work which is expected to be delivered by the team. In addition to this, there were a lot of other elements which were a result of effective leadership on the project undertaken in the organization (Al-Malki and Juan, 2018). It can be indicated that 67% of the respondents agreed that leadership control has an impact on the performance of the projects. 

In addition to this, leadership style is also a vital element that has a significant influence on the performance of the employees with around 94% respondents stating that democratic leadership style has a better impact on the employee performance as compared to the authoritative leadership style. This is an indicator that leadership skill, style, control and experience are different dependent and independent variables that have an impact on the performance of the employees of the Compassion International projects in Kitui County, Kenya. Thus, it can be stated that there is no one single form of leadership that can be applied in all cases or which is suitable for all projects, but certain traits and attributes are more favorable than others which should be put into action for better results.

BUMGT 6927 Creativity & Innovation

In another piece of literature that was analyzed for the purpose of this study, data was collected from joint ventures and their departments especially HR department and different engineering department for a detailed understanding of the leadership governing these departments and the impact that it held on the work (Oh et al., 2019). The questionnaire prepared had questions relating to factors related to HR planning and the maturity that they hold. Along with this, leadership and the different elements that it influences and Likert’s scale was used to assess the same in the form of “strongly agree, agree, no idea, disagree and strongly disagree” to state the true impact. In order to carry out this research, four main consultancies companies of Lahore, Pakistan were selected, and a total of 140 employees were part of this. Out of this, fifty-five filled out the questionnaire and were included in the research. 

The questionnaire was based on the different elements that impact the performance of employees in an organization which included leadership (Chaudhry et al., 2012). The response received was analyzed and assessed through different methods such as exploratory factor analysis (EFA), correlation analysis and path analysis were used to conduct analysis. In the end, the use of Amos 16 was done to assess the true connection between leadership and employee performance in the organizations. The response stated by the respondents stated that the behavior of the leadership and the way he manages and controls the team has a huge impact on the working of the employees and the resultant. If the leader is unable to manage the situation, then it would be shown on the performance of the employees who are responsible for the successful completion of the project. In addition to this, the analysis stated that there is a relation between employee motivation towards a project and the motivation of a leader towards an employee. So, if the leader showcase motivation in the growth and development of the employee, then there is a huge probability that the employee will feel motivated to work judiciously towards the success of the project. If the leader is quite flexible and offers the same flexibility to the employees in terms of their working style and working hours, the employees are more incline to such system leading to a better organizational performance from their end. This is a clear indication of the connection between leadership and the performance of the project in the companies (Gandolfi and Stone, 2018).

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The last work of literature that is reviewed and analyzed for the purpose of the research study states that there are numerous factors which relate to the success of the project. This involves the mission, scope, communication, monitoring among the key elements. The hypothesis discussed in this study consisted that –

  • Personnel factor holds a great role in the success of the project.
  • There is a relationship between the independent variables and project success, and it is affected by the four project life cycle stages.
  • There is a relationship between the independent variables and project success which is based on the project structure. 
  • The sector of the project activity will also have an impact between the independent variables and project success.

Each of these hypotheses was based on the understanding of the different variables and elements which can impact the success of the project and the different independent variables which might affect it in some or the other way (Belout and Gauvreau, 2004).

LAWS20058 BUSINESS LAW

In order to carry out the research, an adapted version of Pinto and Prescott’s – Project Implementation Profile (PIP) was used. There was a pre-test which was conducted in more than ten Canadian organizations with 15 project management experts. The test helped in stating different success factors as per the measurement instrument, which was total nine in number. The questionnaire was divided into different sections, in which the first two sections consisted of socio-demographic characteristics of the respondent and the project that they have carried out. In the third and fourth section of the questionnaire, the independent variables and the dependent variable were assessed. The different factors were assessed through the use of Likert’s scale with a seven-point scale starting from 1, stating strongly disagree to 7 stating strongly agree. On the other hand, the dependent variable was stated based on the PIP method. 

The response received in different parts indicated that there are different elements which have an impact on the success of a project. The respondents stated communication and troubleshooting as the key factors in predicting the success of the project. The analysis conducted through this regard indicated that personnel did not hold many roles on the project success making the hypothesis related to this as null and void (Al Khajeh, 2018). The response received on different accounts for the stage of the project and the relationship that it held with the success of the project stated that different stages of the project cycle would affect the success of the project as it is dependent on a number of factors. The analysis in terms of project structure conducted on the basis of Personnel variable methods stated that only functional structure relates to the connection between these factors while it differs in all the other cases.

PGBM – 51 International Marketing

In relation to the connection between project activity sector and the different variables, it was analyzed these different elements correlated to the success of the project depending on the sector they were in such as information technology, construction, and engineering. Thus, it can be concluded those different elements hold a different role for the independent variables and project success as factors such as the activity sector, the stage of the project, the structure of the project varies which makes it different for each leader to apply the style that can be responsible for the success of the project (Asree et al., 2019).

Different journals and articles state different elements and factors that are responsible for the success of the project, but it can be clearly stated that each one of them mentions leadership in some or the other form. This can be used as a base to depict that leadership has a huge influence on the performance of the employee, which in turn affects the project performance. 

People and Organisation

Chapter 5: Conclusion

5.1 Introduction

The conclusion section states the findings of the research so that a suitable conclusion can be drawn based on it. On the basis of the same, appropriate recommendations are suggested for application of suitable leadership style for the success of the project.

5.2 Findings

For a project to be successful, it requires individuals who are talented and skillful and are more inclined to work towards the organizational success than their personal leading to optimum results for all (Blaskovics, 2014). From the data and information acquired through the research, it can be concluded that projects are an integral part of any business organization. With the growth of the business, the number of projects is also increasing. This requires the company or business to have the best of project managers to get the best outcome. A critical element of a successful project manager is the leadership style applied by them with respect to the project. Different projects vary from each other, and hence the leadership style also changes as per the requirement of the project.

BSBADM502 Manage Meetings

The role played by a project manager’s leadership style in the success of a project.

On the basis of the research, it can be indicated that the democratic leadership style is stated to be the most operative leadership style with respect to different projects across the globe. The data suggests that among all the different style of leadership, democratic leadership offers the most freedom and helps in the right decision-making, which is crucial in the success of a project (Khan et al., 2019). It is based on the thinking that a project environment is quite volatile. One can assess the situation which might occur. Thus, it is crucial for an effective leader to allow followers to make their own decisions. This helps them look at things from a different perspective, which helps in taking care of all the elements which can cause the project to fail. It is stated that project managers need to implement flexibility in the leadership style as per the circumstances making selecting the right leadership style for achieving the desired outcome of the project. The employees want to be part of the decision-making process, and offering guidance helps them work in a more effective and efficient way. 

Assignment 2 ICT710

In addition to this, transformational leadership also holds a great impact on the success of the project. The leaders inspire and motivate the employees, which is very much needed for understanding the need and requirement of the followers. The leader should implement this in their working and assess the true need of the employee so that the right method of motivation can be put in for achieving the success of the project (DuBois et al., 2015). Authoritative leadership style is the one which leads to the most negative impact on the performance of the employees. They feel insecure, and there is no clarity on the direction of the work, which affects the success of the project in a negative way. Laissez-faire leadership is another leadership which is not as effective as the other forms of leadership style. In comparison to this, project managers prefer the democratic style of leadership, which offers more support as compared to the other style of leadership. 

Other factors and its influence on the success of the project

The research analyzed implied that leadership skills hold a great impact on the performance of the project. The skill of the leader to solve problems and offer professional expertise as per the need of the situation can result in the success of a project. 

The experience of a leader is also crucial to the success of the project. It helps in gaining the right technical and practical knowledge which can be implemented in the project with the right leadership style leading to the effective execution of the project (Grzesik and Piwowar-Sulej, 2018). The employees who have worked in a lower position and then become managers are better project managers to get the project completed within a stated budget and timeline as they have the required experience in this regard. It was concluded that leadership experience affects the performance of the employees to a great extent.

Assignment 3 ICT710

Leadership controls is another factor that affects the performance of the project. With the right control on the leadership, one is able to get better clarity on roles and responsibilities, leading to better quality management of the project. 

5.3 Recommendations for the study

There is no doubt in the fact that leadership style holds great value in the success of a project. It is recommended that one assess the background or the sector of the project and the scope and timeline and budget of the project along with the leadership style in order to rate the success of the project. Leadership style and skills hold great importance, and hence one needs to assess the situation along with the requirement and make use of the right style of leadership to generate the best outcome (Hassan and Ismail, 2019). It is also recommended that one should not only rely on the leadership style as there are different other elements which might be vital for different stages of the project which can be responsible for the success or failure of the project.

5.4 Limitations of the study

An assumption which has been established in this research is that leadership style has a huge power on the performance of the project in a positive way. This is considered on the basis that the leaders have the power to govern the path of the project towards success by influencing and affecting the people and their activities with respect to a project. 

Assignment 3 ICT710

5.5 Future of the research

The information acquired by conducting this research can be used all over the world by different companies, business houses, project head and managers to assess the true and real role of leadership style in the success of their projects. This would help them in leading the employees and the team in an effective way. The learnings from this research can be stated as the base on the basis of which different project managers and leaders can assess the type of leadership style that would be suitable for the project and implement it leading a project to the path of success.

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