MS7516- Assignment

Posted on January 28, 2022 by Cheapest Assignment

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Assessment Two Business Research Literature Review

Introduction 

The biggest challenge for the policymakers of any country that is dealing with the Internet arises from amalgamates flooded in by the Internet. Problems associated with the Internet economy encompasses various inputs from various departments of broadcast media, commerce, telecommunications, print media, education, information., labour, infrastructure along with national security. Bringing all of these different departments and finding domestic policy expertise for the Internet from the industry or academics is one of the biggest challenges, especially for economies that are emerging that have been comparatively slow for responding to the issues for the new media and globalization. Regulations that govern the Internet as infrastructure and as medium fall into various categories such as Internet service provider, basic protocols, user behaviour, content, universal access, e-commerce and government or national services (Albornoz, 2015). The media of which the discussion has to be carried on refers to all the mass communication that is oriented towards public means including the radio, press and television including the recorded music and with the increase in the importance of the new mass medium, i.e. Internet, the foundation of being able to diffuse into the amalgamation of communication between various countries is feasible. The Internet has become the basic grounds for the conduction of gradual diffusion into various countries along with providing a platform for the conduction of various numbers of international activities. The boundary existing between private and public communication is a very vital one right from the perspective of regulation and policymaking which is very different from the past concept of the use of the internet as a platform for personal communication (Artz, 2017). This assignment deals with the significance and challenges that are currently faced in the attempts for establishing regulations and policies for the internet and the other new media. 

Object Modelling Assessment

Establishing regulations and policies

Establishing regulations and policies to the entire process of guidance or control, by establishing procedures and rules that are applied by different nations’ governments and other administrative and political authorities has to pertain to different kinds of activities of media. Hence, regulations and policies are always considered in the form of potential intervention in current activities, basically for certain stated goals of “public interest”, but also for serving the requirements and demands of the market (Berry, 2016). Policies and regulations take up various forms that can range from different clauses in the laws for administrative procedures, national constitutions and technical specifications. Regulation and policies can be external as well as internal. In the case of internal policies and regulations, basically, self-regulation is taken into consideration in which internal controls are implemented, which is in certain cases projected in response to the public criticism or pressure from external sources (Corrigan, 2014). 

There has to be the establishment of regulations and policies for the internet and other media as there is a need of understanding the contradiction that is intrinsic to the concept of regulation regarding the agree on means of information and expression in the advanced society. Regulations and policies by nature are established for providing limits to liberty or freedom in any regard which are the fundamental notion of democratic societies (Dart, 2014). This denotes the fact that there has to be a convincing and clear reason for conducting regulations, though, various justifications can be provided for regulation which assists in reconciling it with fundamentals of democracy and freedom. 

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Issues

There are many issues that pertain to the obstruction of the establishment of regulations and policies regarding the Internet and other new media. A few issues regarding regulations and policies have been observed to be cropping up. These challenges deserve to get special attention as they need to be reconsidered every single time there will be an important technological innovation. These regulations create various conditions for different activities of media as they mould the context within which every political and legal; decision making occurs and they need to be addressed by every nation (Gehl, 2014). These are regarded as critical issues that are farmed in different ways and referred by different entities that would make policies beyond and within every country. Every such aspect has implications on the freedom of expression and innovative access to a broad range of information. 

Challenges in Regulations 

Various challenges that are existing in regards to the formation of regulations and policies regarding the internet and other new media. The phrase “digital divide” refers to the issues generated by access in unequal scales to the Internet, the categorizations appears both across and within societies. This refers to single dimensions of what various sociologists possess for many numerous decades that is referred to as the gap of knowledge (Hardy, 2014). The mutual reinforcement exists among scarcity of access to the obtainment of knowledge, lack of efficacy of politics, and low status in the social and economic aspects. Various dimensions regarding access are multiple in numbers, with every dimension needing category legal treatment (Kumar, 2018). 

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Physical access

Physical access in this regard includes access to various networks in itself and to the relevant interface by which the individual’s gains reach to the Internet. Gaining access to various network infrastructures gets included under the government’s purview regarding large scale vendors in the corporate category as they happen to operate within the specific regulatory functions of governments. The extent to which an Internet network is available across varying spaces is denoted as the reach (Lahey, 2017). Vendors and government are encompassed in facilitating access to the various interfaces of networks, however, because these interfaces might be available at household or community level as well as at the individuals standard, other kinds of groups can have implications. In both the developing and developed societies, government assist access at the community level, whether through schools, libraries, or telecenter in order to ensure that the individuals do not have any kind of personal access. Policies or regulations for addressing such issues encompass the establishment of usability standards for building websites and assisting support for the research and development fir creating technologies that serve those with various disabilities. 

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Different kinds of literacy are also crucial for making strong use of new media. Conventional literacy denotes the ability to make sense out of various messages that are to be communicated and for creating meaningful messages. Due to the literacy concept that arises during the print era, there has been a reference to writing and reading. At present importance has been provided to visual literacy. As per Mercille,(2014), there has been the concept of information literacy that refers to the ability to, locate and make use of information in varying forms along with creating and communicating reliable and valid information (Mercille, 2014). Making people have access to laptops or personal computers through which they can gain knowledge regarding the Internet and various other social media is the longstanding challenge the government of every country has to deal with.

Cultural preferences

Cultural preferences can happen to generate huge barriers to the use of the Internet has also become one of the prime subjects regarding regulations and policies for the Internet. Framing of various policies and regulations can be very complex for various regulations that are intended to break them down which may result in raising another. According to Mercille (2017), in a country like South Africa, the government needed two separate managers for every telecenter that were publicly supported. One of them was a woman, however, in various tribal areas; there is heightened gender differentiation that the positioning of a woman in any such post would prevent men from gaining access to the Internet (Mercille, 2017). Various policies and regulations can also be used for providing support of the creation of web content that has been marginalized by various communities. This also encompasses the fact to ensure that various accesses are provided for the groups for whom the meaning of cultural segregation would refer to geographic isolation. There are various efforts for increasing access ease to the Internet across different languages and alphabets. 

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There also have been barriers to gaining access to various contents in regards to lying down of regulations and policies for the internet and other new media. Access o media like Internet has been obtained. However, access to content has become an issue. The challenge of conditions and terms of access is currently held popular as “network neutrality” and various other censorship forms are the key to various issues regarding Internet policy. As per Mosco & Nagy (2017), governments of various countries have been placing different types of restrictions on the terms and conditions of varying access in the obtainment of varying goals (Mosco & Nagy, 2017). These start with varying constraints on freedom or liberty of expression which applies to any kind of medium in the context of the regulation of content. In different countries, there must be the provision of full identification before an individual can use any internet café that is meant for public usage. This has resulted in an increase in the limits on the duration of time by the internet service providers in the context of the time that individuals can spend or the duration of content that one can send or gain access or uses. Public or organizational sites for Internet access can forbid different kinds of activity or gain access to specific content categories (Murdock & Golding, 2016). Parents may also happen to insist in devoting a percentage of time on platforms like the Internet toward educational activities. The condition and terms of access that are established by the “end-user licensing agreements” need to be reassessed that happen to contain various features which are uniform across various access and countries sites. 

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As per Mustapha (2107), common fundamental carriage principles when amalgamated with the values to the Internet network of creating expansion of the network itself, have up until such point that every website could happen to obtain with the same speed and ease whether they are related with the largest population of the world, a retail outlet, a political activist, individual artists or a non –profit organization. The phrase “network neutrality” is utilized in describing the scenario. On the other hand, every individual has experienced delays in obtaining access to certain sites or even have found them unavailable, such time differentials have arrived from technical issues (Mustapha, 2017). This operating to the fact that there can be a great deal of traffic on the various networks or a part of it which results is slowing down everything. There can also be a slower server hosting that results in slow website functioning. 

The association between the content provider and the ISP could also determine access to various websites, specifically if the ISP is owned or associated with a large corporation in the media sector. As per Negro (2017), certain versions of the legislation are being discussed also are leading to the legalization of an ISP for making it very difficult for reaching some websites, like those projection specific political opinions. In this case, if neutrality in the battle is lost, ISPs will gain legal rights regarding censoring the entire content on the internet. This will also encompass extraordinary variety of information and voices that are available on the internet. Even though it is feasible for accessing websites of independent, small groups that are politically marginal, if the access gets slower for different websites, it is mostly that the traffic to such websites would get lower (Negro, 2017). There are various reports of kinds of activities by internet service providers around the globe which also includes the United States, such ISPs admit to varying activities when they are projected to be public, either implicitly or explicitly by ceasing the practices regarding which various complaints have been obtained (Van Couvering, 2017). Losing the battle network neutrality on the side of legal obligations would make thus very enduring and pervasive. 

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Access to information

Access to information is regarded to be the fundamental need for freedom and liberty of expression as it is not feasible for taking part in various public disclosure regarding shared concerns of public matters without understanding what actually is going on. The concept of information access referred to access to varying information regarding the government and its varying activities. As per Wagner & Fernandez-Ardevol (2016), regulations, policies and laws securing and implementing such rights stay critically significant currently. However, appreciation has to be there regarding the concept of referring to the access of knowledge and information of all kinds so as to enhance the socio-economic condition of an individual’s, assisting him or her in participating in political life completely and pursuing specific concerns (Wagner & Fernandez-Ardevol, 2016). As organizations are mostly reluctant for releasing various information about themselves, regulations, laws and policies that govern the access to knowledge and information must encompass facilities for challenging refusals for providing the requested information. Every time there is a change in the technological environment, the natures of regulations that govern access to information need to be reconsidered (Wittel, 2015). 

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The transition towards an economy based on information has significant implications on the nature of different property rights and property in itself and in many different ways. Firstly, it has attracted the development of new forms in a complete manner be regarding the property. Secondly, it has resulted in the transformation of the legal treatment of different old forms of property. Thirdly, it has implications on the way an individual perceives and has thought processes regarding the rights to property and the property itself (Wasko & Meehan, 2013). 

According to Wasko (2014), the laws and regulations associated with privacy have been sensitive towards innovation in technology. Every stage of development of new communication or information technology that triggers evolution has been affected by the laws associated with privacy concerns. It has been considered as a basic human right as it is vital to many of the profound activities of humans as well as the ability of an individual to exercise various rights encompassing free speech, relationship with others and ownership with properties (Wasko, 2014). In various countries, there have been legal protections of different kinds of privacy which are spread across different regulations and laws. Situations in which various people happen to experience privacy invasions for which there is no kind of explicit regulations or laws in place can facilitate grounds for the establishment of lawsuits. Both the private sector and governmental entities happen to threaten the privacy of the information on the internet. 

Assessment 1: Critical Review

Conclusion 

The prime potential that new media, as well as the Internet, offers for establishing communication with each other presents varying challenges regarding policy and legalities. The ways in which these are resolved is simply a matter of significance not only limited to the professionals working in the media but also to every who desires of having a communication with others, access knowledge and information, participate in various individual and political group conversations, and is interested in sharing content with many individuals. The issues that happen to obstruct the development or establishment of regulations, laws and policies for the Internet and other new media refer to access to infrastructure, access to intellectual property, access to relevant content and privacy. Understanding regulations and laws which affect the ways in which a person is able to communicate the need, to begin with assessing the local regulations and laws, but with communication in the current world, expansion in regards to integrating internet and other media with a promising nature has to be considered. This assignment assisted in having an in-depth analysis of the issues that happen to challenge the establishment of laws and regulations for media. 

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References 

Albornoz, L., 2015. Power, media, culture: a critical view from the political economy of communication. Springer.

Artz, L., 2017. Commentary: Transnational Capitalism and the New Political Economy of Transnational Media. The Political Economy of Communication5(2).

Berry, D., 2016. Theodor Adorno and Dallas Smythe: Culture industry/consciousness industry and the political economy of media and communication. In Revisiting the Frankfurt School(pp. 98-124). Routledge.

Corrigan, T.F., 2014. The political economy of sports and new media. In Routledge handbook of sport and new media (pp. 61-72). Routledge.

Dart, J., 2014. New media, professional sport and political economyJournal of Sport and Social Issues38(6), pp.528-547.

Gehl, R.W., 2014. Reverse engineering social media: Software, culture, and political economy in new media capitalism. Temple University Press.

Hardy, J., 2014. The critical political economy of the media: An introduction. Routledge.

Kumar, S., 2018. POLITICAL ECONOMY OF THE DIGITAL MEDIA IN INDIA: PUBLIC VS PRIVATE INTERESTS. International Journal of Current Humanities and Social Science Researches (IJCHSSR)2(1), pp.6-6.

Lahey, M., 2017. Reverse engineering social media: software, culture, and political economy in new media capitalism.

Mercille, J., 2014. The political economy and media coverage of the European economic crisis: the case of Ireland (Vol. 188). Routledge.

Mercille, J., 2017. Media Coverage of Alcohol Issues: A Critical Political Economy Framework—A Case Study from Ireland. International journal of environmental research and public health14(6), p.650.

Mosco, V. and Nagy, I., 2017. Political Economy of Media Effects. The International Encyclopedia of Media Effects.

Murdock, G. and Golding, P., 2016. Political economy and media production: a reply to Dwyer. Media, Culture & Society38(5), pp.763-769.

Mustapha, M., 2017. The 2015 general elections in Nigeria: new media, party politics and the political economy of voting. Review of African Political Economy44(152), pp.312-321.

Negro, G., 2017. A Historical Overview of the Media Political Economy of the Internet in China. In The Internet in China (pp. 19-88). Palgrave Macmillan, Cham.

Van Couvering, E., 2017, January. The Political Economy of New Media Revisited. In Proceedings of the 50th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences.

Wagner, S. and Fernandez-Ardevol, M., 2016. Local content production and the political economy of the mobile app industries in Argentina and Bolivia. new media & society18(8), pp.1768-1786.

Wasko, J. and Meehan, E.R., 2013. Critical crossroads or parallel routes?: Political economy and new approaches to studying media industries and cultural products. Cinema Journal52(3), pp.150-157.

Wasko, J., 2014. The study of the political economy of the media in the twenty-first century. International Journal of Media & Cultural Politics10(3), pp.259-271.

Wittel, A., 2015. Digital Marx: Toward a political economy of distributed media. Marx in the Age of Digital Capitalism68, pp.1-22. 

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