Epidemiology, in general, involves identifying cases, distributing, and controlling possible diseases as well as other factors in health. In this regard, occupational epidemiology is a branch of epidemiology involved in scrutinizing colleagues and their place of work. Studies in occupational epidemiologic involve examining professionals exposed to either physical, biological, or chemical agents to ascertain whether these exposures could increase the risk of detrimental outcomes in health (Checkoway, Pearce & Dement, 2016). On the other hand, epidemiologic studies also involve evaluating colleagues who have similar unfavourable health outcomes to ascertain whether an agent or several agents can explain their illness.
The four main study types conducted during occupational epidemiology are as follows. The Case series study, observes the total number of unusual illness cases amidst a number of employees and ensures the investigations do not exceed the stage where a disease cluster is identified. In the cohort study, a number of employees are set against a control group which has not been subjected to any of the hazards in the place of work during the assessment. Studies in case-control are set against any past cases exposed to the illness and the past of all individuals without the condition. It is the most cost-effective study (Checkoway, Pearce & Dement, 2016). Lastly, there is the cross-sectional study which entails comparing different exposure levels and widespread presence, signs or the mental status of employees. Cross-sectional studies facilitate data collection during situations that could not be generally recorded due to limitations of other study designs which mainly concentrate on the critical states of an illness.
Checkoway, H., Pearce, N., & Dement, J. M. (2016). Design and conduct of occupational epidemiology studies: II. Analysis of cohort data. American journal of industrial medicine, 15(4), 375-394.Order Now