PROJECT MANAGEMENT TOOLS & TECHNIQUES

Posted on March 11, 2022 by Cheapest Assignment

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International Management

Executive summary

The appropriate project management plan helps an organisation to improve the project schedule based on evaluating the scenario. The present study has provided the idea about the organisational plan to install wind farms. Analysis of the risk factors has been mentioned in the latter half of the project. Risk identification and evaluation of probable risk and occurrence are analysed and noted. A particular risk mitigation plan and risk identification process is suggested on the basis of literary evidence. Finally, this report is presenting a critical analysis of key dimensions of projects with appropriate methodology.

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Task 1: Project Management Plan- 

Part A: Project Plan

Introduction-

Application of the project management plan based on circumstantial evidence helped the organisations of renewable resources (wind, water, solar etc.) to generate electricity in an easier way. In that case, it helps the consumers to have the facilities of obtaining electricity services at a reasonable price. Hence, the present assessment has discussed the electricity generation project plan conducted by EcoNewWorld. The appropriate evaluations of the required resources, scheduled plan and others have been briefly discussed in this present document. On the other hand, a detailed critical review of the energy generation wind farm named EcoNewWorld has been reflected significantly. 

Project overview-

Energy generation organisation EcoNewWorld has prepared a plan for this project that aims to enhance the electricity production capacity using windmill technology to improve their execution significantly. Hence, the concerned organisation is also going to introduce their installation of the windmill and develop the infrastructure for efficient generation of electricity, which contains a capacity of almost 2000 MW electric generation. Along with this, an appropriate evaluation of EcoNewWorld’s plan aims to improve its capacity of generating more than 1000 MW in the upcoming future. On the other hand, the organisation also prepared a plan to reduce their carbon footprint and to improve the environmental suitability in this present scenario. The hiring of technical experts for better execution of project components and improving the conversion ratio from wind energy to electrical energy has been discussed in this project plan. In addition, the present organisation has aimed to complete this project within almost 250 Million GBP. In that case, the organisation is aiming to improve their electricity generation procedure within the shortest time that can help them to generate proper consumer retention and satisfaction as well. On the other hand, aims related to providing electricity services to the consumers at a reasonable price also can help the organisation to improve their economic strength with appropriate customer retention and profitability aspects. 

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Scope and deliverable of the project-

Scope 

This project benefits to increase the numbers of windmills in different areas that can improve the brand recognition of this organisation significantly by improving their execution regarding the installation of windmill facilities and improving technology. Along with this, application of the renewable energies also can help the organisation to improve their organisational execution in terms of transferring the energies. More to the context, the concerned organisation also get the scope to expand their organisational activities with the help of reducing carbon footprint and providing services at a reasonable cost. 

Deliverables: EcoNewWorld is aiming to deliver projects based on the following factors- 

  • Install a new wind farm with a capacity of 2000 MW
  • Improve the energy transformation procedure to the grid
  • Complete the product with the help of the scheduled budget and time 
  • Aims to improve the brand value of the organisation in this internationalisation context
  •  Provide quality services to the consumers to improve the customer retention factors

Identification of constraints within the project

The appropriate evaluation of the critical consequences of the market and the demand helps the organisations to get ideas about the potential challenges within the way of the organisational execution procedure. In accordance with the reflection of Unegbu et al. (2021), constrained in way of the project management plan can be classified into three segments such as cost management, quality management, and scope management. In that case, EcoNewWorldhas evaluated the circumstantial evidence based on their project plan to mitigate risks with appropriate application of the risk register procedure. 

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  • Constraints related to maintaining the connection with the grid. 
  • Constraints related to monitoring the sites and the location to inspect the execution procedure 
  • Constraints related to natural disasters such as storms, excessive wind flow 
  • Constraints related to the maintenance of acquisition of the industrial Constraints
  • Constraints related to the maintenance of the windmills on a regular basis 
  • Constraints related to maintaining the workforce resource and talent recruitment 
  • Constraints related to maintaining the raw material collection and evaluation 
  • Constraints related to time management based on the project execution procedure 

Schedule and process of management-

Plan 

Task  Subtask  Timeline (Days)
Initiation

(70 days)

Collection of the required information about the project and resources  15 
Searching as well as finalizing the site of operation of the location to conduct the project  20
Incorporation of the analysis procedure of feasibility  15
Monitoring the executions based 10
Documentation and finalizing the report  10
Planning

(60 days)

Conduction meeting with the stakeholders 5
Meeting with the financial management to prepare a budget plan 10
Measurement of the supply management and prepare plan for it  5
Risk management along with contingency planning 5
Evaluation of the plan based on the circumstantial evidence 15
Generation of the risk register and prepare plan to mitigate risk  15
Finalise the plan  5
Execution

(130 days)

Evaluation of the existing stock and measure its effectiveness 10
Conducting the procedure of installing the windmills  60
Generation of the procedure of installing Installation of step-up transformers 20
Generation of the procedure of installing connections to the grid 25
Valuation of the procedure to change up the transformers and improve the connection with the warehouse. 10
Closure 

(5 days)

Finalising the plan  1
Generation of the meeting to evaluate the proposed plan  4
Project closure  1

Table 1: Scheduled plan for installing and commissioning of wind farms 

(Source: Created by author)

Analysis 

The concerned organisation has prepared a plan to improve their initiation within almost 70 days. This segment also encompasses the aspects of evaluation and collecting the data. The second atage4 of this plan includes the aspects of planning which requires almost 60 days. This segment includes the aspects of meeting and evaluation of the collected data. Within the 3rd stage, the organization generates the overall execution which requires almost 130 days. It includes the aspects of execution, monitoring and risk management. The last stage is going to be conducted within 5 days. As stated by Demirkese and Ozorhon (2017), the organisation become able to gene4ttyae their organisational objective and aim with the help of this proper structured and scheduled plan. 

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Timeline 

20.12.2021-20.2.2022 20.2.2022-20.4.2022 20.4.2022-20.6.2022 20.6.2022-20.8.2022
Initiation 
Planning 
execution
Closure 

Table 2: Gantt chart

(Source: Created by Author)

A necessary resource for the project

Human resource 

Required workforce  Job role 
Mechanical engineer, electrical engineers  To evaluate the execution related to windmill installation, transformer installation, grid connection
Project manager  To evaluate the executions of the project 
Planners and civil engineers  To evaluate the construction execution 
Labours including electrician, constructional labour  To conduct the project efficiently

Table 3: Evaluation of the Workforce requirement and their job role  

(Source: Created by author)

Plan 

Factors  Required expenditure (in million GBP)
Site purchasing  80
Gathering the required equipment  50
Construction materials  20
Employee wages  80
Reserved funds  20
Total cost  250 million GBP

Table 4: Budget plan for installing and commissioning of wind farms

(Source: Created by author)

Raw materials 

  • Equipment related to the construction 
  • Windmills
  •  Transformers 
  • Electric cables 
  • Grinds 
  • Trucks 
  • Excavators 
  • Electric equipment 

Key stakeholders and responsibilities-

Chief electrical management  Chief construction engeener Planner  Financial manager Project manager  Workforce 
Evaluation of the circumstantial evidence  Responsible, accountable, consulted, informed  Responsible, accountable, consulted, informed Responsible, accountable, consulted, informed Responsible, accountable, consulted, informed Responsible, accountable, consulted, informed informed
Project requirement  accountable, consulted, informed accountable, consulted, informed accountable, consulted, informed accountable, consulted, informed Responsible, accountable, consulted, informed informed
Financial perspectives  consulted, informed consulted, informed consulted, informed Responsible, accountable, consulted, informed consulted, informed consulted, informed
Inventory management  accountable, consulted, informed Responsible, accountable, consulted, informed Responsible, accountable, consulted, informed accountable, informed accountable, consulted, informed consulted, informed
Electrical factors  Responsible, accountable, consulted, informed accountable, consulted, informed accountable, consulted, informed consulted accountable, consulted, informed accountable, consulted, informed
Project risk management  consulted, informed consulted, informed consulted, informed consulted, informed Responsible, accountable, consulted, informed informed
Grind commission  Responsible, accountable, consulted, informed accountable, consulted, informed accountable, consulted, informed consulted, informed accountable, consulted, informed accountable, consulted, informed

Table 5: RACI matrix evaluation for installing and commissioning

of wind farms  

(Source: Created by author)

Communication plan

Personnel  Job role  Communication methods 
Project manager  To observe the progress of the project and the execution based on risk control  Email, phone call, face to face meeting 
Chief electrical engineer  To observe the electrical execution and risk mitigation  Email, phone call, face to face meeting 
Construction manager  Email, phone call, face to face meeting 
Planner  Email, phone call, face to face meeting 
Workforce  Meeting 

Table 6: Communication plan for installing and commissioning of wind farms  

(Source: Created by author)

Summary of the plan-

The present project plan of the organisation EcoNewWorld has evaluated the effective scheduling based on the objective. In that case, it can help the employees to improve the execution of their allocated work. On the other hand, the present segment has also evaluated the potential constraints that can create obstacles in the way of the organisational execution. Hence, the organisation has scheduled an effective risk register and risk mitigation procedures within their project plan segment. On the other hand, the present study has salo provided a brief and clarified discussion regarding the required budget to excite this work effectively. Similarly, key personnel and their roles to execute this work have also been evaluated in this assessment. 

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Part B: Risk management approach-

Risk identification 

Enhancing the of electricity generation capacity from the wind farms offers risks such as:

  • Financial Constraints 
  • Geographical  Constraints
  • Employees Relevant Skill and Turnover
  • Material Supply
  • Environment Constraints 

According to Klučka et al. (2020), there are the above-mentioned risks of this wind farm project. Electricity generation from the wind farm can be a cost-efficient process but the initial cost of investment is high. Geographical and initial stage investment and access factors affect the wind frequency and the cost of the projects altogether. 

Evaluation of the probable risk and occurrence 

Risks Impact Frequency
Financial Constraints Significant Frequent
Geographical Constraints Moderate Often
Employees Skills and Turnover Serious Possible
Material Supply Serious Possible
Environmental Constraints Moderate Probable

Financial Constraints-

The initial building of the turbine requires an upfront investment. The cost of building underground lines to connect them to the locality will then add up to the investment stack. Bankruptcy and huge initial project cost could be the risk that EcoNewWorld should consider beforehand.

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Geographical Constraints

Geographical constraints include the location of the development of the farm and whether sufficient area is available and is suitable for developing wind turbines. According to Wieczorek-Kosmala (2020), the scale of the wind turbines also depends on the location and area availability. Geographical constraints include;

  • Noise buffers
  • Water sources
  • Roadways
  • Woodlands 
  • Locality

Noise buffers and locality issues with the noise and structure of the wind turbines poses a threat to EcoNewWorld. Wind velocity and frequency will also affect the efficiency of generating electricity. 

Employee Relevant Skills and Turn Over-

EcoNewWorld will be in need of efficient mechanical and electrical engineers skills in order to support the successful implications of the project. They need to be extremely cautious and document their findings and assessments. There are risks as the employees are required to climb a specific height in order to do their jobs. This poses a risk to their safety and mental conditions. The organisation should prioritise their safety in the workplace.

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Material Supply

The wind farm project will require a bulk of materials that are needed to be supplied or be transferred to the farm during the project. The unavailability of the tools and machinery will affect the efficiency of the project. Raw material supply at the initial stage is important for the project work to go smoothly. 

Environmental Constraints

EcoNewWorld needs to consider the environmental effects of the project. Edjossan-Sossou et al. (2020) in their studies suggested, the organization needs to consider the issues and threats that it poses on the environment and also plan strategies to overcome or reduce, ensuring the sustainability of the organization on a long term basis.  

Demonstration of the procedure to prioritize the risk –

Risk prioritization refers to the specific identification process that helps to determine mitigation plans according to the priority. Considering the fact associated with the installation and commissioning of the wind farms to generate electricity the NewEcoWorld can face several risks to manage project functions. In this regard, Jnr (2018) suggested that demonstration and prioritization of risks need to be based on the impact on the project. The same study also suggested that first priority should be given to the accidents and casualties that happen on site. Unpredictable accidents during the construction of wind farms can result in severe consequences by impacting the performance of the business. A high level of construction site accidents also impacts the sustainability of business because it reflects that the human resources of the firm are not getting value. Similarly, Khatib et al. (2018) said that less value to the human resources also impact the CSR policy of firm negatively that may impact the brand image and market position. Hence, the human resource of the firm needs to be protected first. 

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Secondly, the risk prioritization approaches should consider the underperforming and non-performing assets of the firm. Considering non-performing assets of the firm the managerial authority can address issues related to the necessary equipment. Same to the context Hudaib et al (2018) said that identification of non-performing and underperforming assets the authority will help to manage assets in an optimized manner. Thirdly, the firm needs to give priority to the financial issues and bankruptcy because the concerned project requires a huge amount of investment at the initial stage to increase the capacity of electricity generation. A further priority of the risk identification should rely on the legislation risk-related issues. Consideration of the legislation related risk will help the firm to minimize legal liabilities caused by wind farm construction procedure (Oz et al. 2019). Finally, in order to develop the capacity of electricity generation, NewEcoWorld should consider natural causality and the impact of business on the environment. Consideration of the environmental concern will help the farm to develop business in a sustainable manner because it improves the overall image of the brand with positive information input.

Analysis of risk factors-

The risk analysis process refers to the particular process that helps to assign the likelihood of an advice event that occurs within the business. In this project, the risk factor associated with the NewEcoWorld wind farm project is going to be addressed. It is being expected that risk analysis will be helpful in the project management approach of the case study organization in a comprehensive manner. 

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General risks-

Kaur and Singh (2018) commented that accidents at the project site can be considered as a general risk because the number of deaths in this specific industry is the third highest in the world. Considering this finding it can be said that construction site hazards is a general risk but makes a high impact on the performance of a project because of the high intensity of casualty and fatality. On the other hand, the study of Podari et al. (2020) highlighted that the UK based wind farm can face general challenges due to the unavailability of the appropriate infrastructure to enhance the capacity of wind farms. 

The same study also highlighted that as the demand and supply of the necessary equipment is low as compared to the thermal power energy NewEcoWorld can face challenges regarding the supply of raw materials. More to the context due to the limitation of suppliers and the unavailability of the necessary tools and low amount of demand can make a negative impact on the project performance. On the other hand, Hopkinson (2017) commented that risks that are inclusive to the natural casualties can also be considered a general risk because it limits accessibility towards the project deliverable. 

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Specific risks-

Specific risks are those negative factors that specifically make an impact on the project management activities of NewEcoWorld. Therefore, it can be said that land acquisition for the capacity enhancement, permission and contentment process to utilize land are specific risks associated with this concerned project (Sanchez and Terlizzi, 2017). Considering these specific risks it can be said that wind feasibility and availability of high capacity windmills are required to maintain specific speed. Therefore, it is being expected that the wind speed between 10 Km to 50 km per hour is a specific requirement because it holds the potential to generate proposed amounts of electricity. As this project requires a large amount of land coverage the permission from the acquisition authority needs to be considered as a specific issue because it may impact local flora and fauna. More to the context, Khatibsyarbini et al. (2018) mention that if any wind farm project makes a negative impact on the local flora and fauna tends to face difficulty in getting permission. Therefore it can be said that issues of land acquisition, impact on the environment, requirements of specific wind speeds can cause specific challenges to the project performance of the NewEcoWorld.

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Risk mitigation procedure-

Risks  Management approaches  Timeline 
Regulatory risks- Conducting a gap analysis the managerial authority will mitigate regulatory risk. The gap analysis will help the authority to identify specific areas of consideration and prepare compliance policy accordingly. 120 day
Financial risks-  In order to mitigate financial risk the authority is intending to calculate the impact of every performing and non-performing asset. Calculation of the low performing and non-performing assets will help to prepare conceptual responsiveness to mitigate future financial risks (Hudaib et al. 2018).   70-90 days
Performance risk-  Risk caused by machinery breakdown can be mitigated by regular monitoring. The authority will check the performance of windmills and other equipment on a regular basis. A sudden change of wind velocity and wind direction is hard to mitigate but by installing a wind direction changing wall the NewEcoWorld can handle these issues (Podari et al. 2020).  80-90 days
Physical hazard risks- All risks associated with the physical hazards can be covered under insurance because insurance gives protection to all physical risk associated with project performance.   45 days 

Task-2: Critical analysis

Introduction

The project management process can be considered as the process of systematically managing the outcomes of the project so that the client requirements are being effectively met. However, the project manager has to be systematic so that the quality outcomes of the projects are being met and they are being delivered in time. Further, ensuring an effective project management process depicts, the stakeholders of the project are satisfied with the final outcome of the project. P3M can be considered as the systematic methodology that helps in accomplishing the project. The following segment of the study shall provide a critical understanding of the project management process undertaken by the management of EcoNewWorld to construct new wind farms. Hence, operational as well as planning aspects shall be explained in detail within the contents mentioned below.

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Discussion-

The project brief has been observed to describe the project management process undertaken by the management of Eco new world for the development of a wind farm with a full capacity of 1500 MW. The brief has been observed to establish the fact that the company is aiming to enhance the capacity of the wind farms with proper stability of connections across the grid for production as well as supply of electricity to some of the major clients. In this context, it can be commented that the basics of effective project management methods, in accordance with the P3M methodology can be applied to this project for analysis of the project brief.  In accordance with the views of Thöns (2018) Program and portfolio management is the application of methods, procedures and techniques to accomplish a predefined set of business objectives The main objective of P3M  is to ensure quality outcomes are being supplied to the clients in a planned as well as controlled manner respectively. Thus, Van Staveren (2018) had commented that investments of P3M shall ensure the provision of benefits to both the host company as well as the people associated with the projects. The first aspect of P3M is to develop a rationale for initiating the project management process. With the passage of time, energy demands have increased considerably, hence, it has become essential for the management of EcoNewWorld to enhance the capacity of the wind farms to meet the energy demands that have been created in the market. Since wind farms are able to provide energy sustainably, hence the pressure on the existing farms are increased.  Having clear knowledge regarding the fact had helped the project managers to align the sustainability aspects with the project development process. This had included the process of waste management, recycling and using eco-friendly materials for construction purposes. Tsolas (2020) had commented that another major aspect of P3M is that it is essential for understanding the unique context of the project and adapting to the operations accordingly. A major way to understand the infrastructural context of the project is to analyse the design and structural projects of the project. Apart from this, understanding how the project control methodologies have been implemented shall also be explained in detail.

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However, Podari et al. (2020) suggested that to implement the P3M approaches of project management methodology the firm needs to build an appropriate team. Appropriate approaches to team building help the project team to meet the goals of the concerned project strategically. Therefore, it can be said that by maintaining focus on team building the NewEcoWorld will be able to fulfil its aims and objectives. Along with that the farm also gets an opportunity to deliver projects deliverable within the timeline. 

On the contrary, the study of Hudaib et al. (2018) mentioned that by focusing on team building the company will be able to minimise internal conflicts by addressing internal team management issues. This is signifying that focus on team building holds the potential to minimise internal conflicts. However, at the time of building a team the authority needs to pay attention to the capability enhancement of every individual (Podari et al. 2020). Capability enhancement of every team member holds the potential to increase the overall creativity of the team. The creativity and capacity enhancement of every team member will help NewEcoWorld to fulfil the targeted level of electricity generation.  

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Along with that, it is being expected that capability enhancement of the entire team can also change the learning behaviours of every member. Change in the learning behaviour of team members’ also impacts the revenue generation process. Similarly, it is needed to highlight that the P3M strategy of the project management helps to optimize the program management approach by improving coordination and acceleration of the project related activity (Oz et al. 2019). More to the context, appropriate team-building approaches provide benefits to the management and quantify the profit generation process by meeting project objectives. In relation to it managers are required to monitor the activities and performance of every member according to the requirements of the project. Hudaib et al. (2018) suggested that a regular monitor of the employee performance will undertake cautionary measures and prepare further plans of development. Along with that importance on the human resource and capacity development of the entire team will help the entire team incorporate values and CSR responsibility. Finally, the string CSR responsibility of the firm strengthens the market position and enhances competitiveness. 

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Conclusion-

At the end of the assessment, it can be concluded that project activities of the wind farm are largely paying attention to meeting the objective of capacity development. Along with that, it is also noted that an effective framework of project management helps to meet best practices that hold the capability to meet deliverables within the timeline. However, it is also needed to highlight that appropriate approaches of team building and team development strategy increase the overall capacity of the farm. Therefore, the P3M project management is incorporating all aspects of project execution. Furthermore, it can be said that effective communication within every member who is responsible to handle project activities by fulfilling contextual needs help in going through a vital transition.  

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References

Demirkesen, S. and Ozorhon, B., (2017). Impact of integration management on construction project management performance. International Journal of Project Management, 35(8), pp.1639-1654.

Edjossan-Sossou, A.M., Galvez, D., Deck, O., Al Heib, M., Verdel, T., Dupont, L., Chery, O., Camargo, M. and Morel, L., (2020). Sustainable risk management strategy selection using a fuzzy multi-criteria decision approach. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 45, p.101474.

Hopkinson, M., 2017. The project risk maturity model: Measuring and improving risk management capability. Routledge.

Hudaib, A., Masadeh, R., Qasem, M.H. and Alzaqebah, A., (2018). Requirements prioritization techniques comparison. Modern Applied Science, 12(2), p.62.

Jnr, B.A., (2018). Validating the usability attributes of the AHP-software risk prioritization model using partial least square-structural equation modelling. Journal of Science and Technology Policy Management.

Kaur, Y. and Singh, S., (2018). Risk Mitigation Planning, Implementation, and Progress Monitoring: Risk Mitigation. In Analyzing the Role of Risk Mitigation and Monitoring in Software Development (pp. 1-20). IGI Global.

Khatibsyarbini, M., Isa, M.A., Jawawi, D.N. and Tumeng, R., (2018). Test case prioritization approaches in regression testing: A systematic literature review. Information and Software Technology, 93, pp.74-93.

Klučka, J. and Grünbichler, R., (2020). Enterprise Risk Management–Approaches Determining Its Application and Relation to Business Performance. Quality Innovation Prosperity, 24(2), pp.51-58.

Oz, N.E., Mete, S., Serin, F. and Gul, M., (2019). Risk assessment for clearing and grading process of a natural gas pipeline project: An extended TOPSIS model with Pythagorean fuzzy sets for prioritizing hazards. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal, 25(6), pp.1615-1632.

Podari, Z., Arbain, A.F., Ibrahim, N. and Sudarmilah, E., (2020), December. Risk Mitigation Framework for Agile Global Software Development. In International Conference of Reliable Information and Communication Technology (pp. 1233-1246). Springer, Cham.

Sanchez, O.P. and Terlizzi, M.A., (2017). Cost and time project management success factors for information systems development projects. International Journal of Project Management, 35(8), pp.1608-1626.

Thöns, S., (2018). On the value of monitoring information for structural integrity and risk management. ComputerAided Civil and Infrastructure Engineering, 33(1), pp.79-94.

Tsolas, I.E., (2020). Benchmarking Wind Farm Projects by Means of Series Two-Stage DEA. Clean Technologies, 2(3), pp.365-376.

Unegbu, H.C.O., Yawas, D.S. and Dan-asabe, B., (2021). ASSESSMENT OF THE RELATIVE IMPORTANCE AND RELATIONSHIPS OF PROJECT MANAGEMENT PRACTICES FOR THE CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY IN NIGERIA. Proceedings on Engineering, 3(1), pp.65-80.

Van Staveren, M., (2018). Uncertainty and ground conditions: a risk management approach. CRC Press.

Wieczorek-Kosmala, M., (2020). Weather Risk Management in Energy Sector: The Polish Case. Energies, 13(4), p.945.

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