Relationship between Work and Non- Work

Posted on April 15, 2022 by Cheapest Assignment

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Dynamic Leadership Sample

Introduction:

The present level of competitiveness in the business world is reflective of the concerns for maintaining an appropriate interface between professional and family life. Employees should maintain a coherent relationship between professional and personal aspects of their life to accomplish the proper balance between work-family and family-work should be supported by the motivation, productivity, and limited stress in the workforce (Bogaerts, Cooman & De, 2016). 

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The interface related to family and work could be considered a subject of major attention for academicians as well as practitioners of management. Therefore the following report intends to expound on the fact about the positive impact of flexible work arrangements on the reduction of negative spill-over observed in the family-work and work-family interface (Direnzo, Greenhaus & Weer, 2015). The discussion on the potential impacts of flexible work arrangements should be supported with explicit references towards the definitions of contextual terms such as spillover, burnout, and the relevant factors considered as significant influences on the morale and productivity of employees. 

Contextual definitions:

As per George, the observation of spill-over from a conceptual perspective comprising of references towards the understanding of processes that are characterized by individual moods, stress, behaviors, and emotions from one aspect of the social life of an individual affecting other aspects or roles of the individual in society (George, 2015). Spillover could be defined explicitly as the process that implies the impact of one social role of an individual on the other social role assumed by the individuals with explicit emphasis upon the spillover of behavior, skills, and values that can positively or negatively affect the other roles of the concerned person. 

Positive spillover is indicative of the productive transfer of positively characterized skills, values, impact, and behaviors from the domain of origin towards the receiving domain. On the other hand, negative spillover could be recognized in scenarios where the two sectors of family and job imply demands for competition in the context of an individual’s inclination for the investment of time, attention, and energy (Grosswald, 2003). Work-family interface research is promisingly associated with comprehensively embedded roots in the role theory alongside implying the significance of role conflicts observed in the work-family interface. Role conflicts have been associated with a significant effect on the nature of behavioral patterns and attitudes among the workforce in diverse workplace settings. 

The work-family aspects could be associated with three specific categories such as time-based, behavior-based, and strain-based aspects of the work-family interface. According to König & De La Guardia, time-based conflicts are derived from the impact of time investment in roles of one domain on the roles in another domain (König& De La Guardia, 2014). Behavior-based conflicts are observed in scenarios where expectations of behavior from one domain could not be aligned with the behavioral expectations in the roles of the other domain. Strain-based conflict is largely derived from the impact of stress in a particular role in a domain leading to prominent outcomes in roles in the other domain. 

Standard Dissertation Topic & Outline / Plan

Work-family spillover:

Specific work-family interface spillover could also be associated with negative outcomes and the reasons for the negative trends in the work-family interface. The particular implications for higher work demand are required for understanding the negative spillover with relevance to the route from work to family. The requirements for employees in high-pressure jobs and a high level of precision in terms of professionalism in jobs could be reflective of the considerable demands for long working hours that are complemented by higher volumes of work (Lin, Chen & Sun, 2015). 

The impact of remuneration in the context of jobs could also be considered a viable source of commitment from employees. Some of the notable characteristics outcomes of spillover in the work-family interface reflect on the impact on physical and mental health, relationships with children, satisfaction in the context of family and life, and incidents of substance abuse. As per Shockley et al., (2017), the effects of negative work-family spillover could be identified profoundly in the deterioration of the mental and physical health of an individual employee (Shockley et al., 2017). The correlation between work-family conflicts and the physical health of an individual has been identified in the majority of research study literature that reflects primarily on the increasing levels of hypertension, potential superior levels of depression, and inadequate physical health (Syrek, et al., 2017). Higher depression resulting from the pressure at work could also be complemented by the increased levels of physical and emotional exhaustion thereby leading to the prevalence of negative spillover in work-family conflict. 

Alcohol abuse could be assumed as a promising example in the context of the negative spillover outcomes from work-family conflicts. The critical concern, in this case, is associated with a promising reference toward other forms of abuse, especially in terms of abuse of family members that can arise from heavy drinking by male and female members of the family (Shantz, Alfes& Latham, 2016). The contextual outcomes from the negative spillover in the work-family interface can be reflective of negative relationships with children alongside inherent satisfaction with family and the life of an individual. the aspects of marital satisfaction and the opportunities for taking care of younger children as well as making appropriate arrangements for the benefits for kids before departing for work are limited in the case of people experiencing high levels of work pressure. 

Impact of social networking on Australian employees’ behaviour

Family-work spillover:

Family problems could be potentially associated with spillover into the workplace thereby leading to family-work conflicts. Family work conflicts lead to detrimental outcomes in terms of work-related stress, burnout, absenteeism, poor productivity, and employee turnover (Creed, French & Hood, 2015). The stress related to work could be validated as a major impact of the perceived stress of job threats to improve the frequency of work-life conflict alongside limiting the balance between work and personal life. 

The researchers depict notable references towards the effect of higher irritation, limited self-control, agitation, and higher work pressure on the limitation of balance between work and life contexts thereby leading to a higher number of conflicts (Davies, van der Heijden & Flynn, 2016). Work-life imbalance is attributed as a credible factor that influences the stress for employees. Burnout is also a credible indicator of particular aspects such as emotional exhaustion, reduction in personal and professional achievement as well as skepticism (Shockley et al., 2017). Therefore, negative spillover in family-work interfaces could lead to a notable influence on the promotion of employee turnover. The studies about the balance between work and life of employees suggested that it was not only a major concern for business management but also a credible indicator of employee dissatisfaction. 

The family demands of an employee could also be associated profoundly with the demarcations of outcomes for male and female employees. Female employees could be subject to major responsibilities in terms of family demands that can force them to make workload adjustments in terms of reducing the load of assignments and refraining from overtime work (Demsky, Ellis & Fritz, 2014).

Strategic approach for work-life balance:

The research study literature about the motivation for reducing the spillover effect of family work and work-family interactions has been largely directed towards presenting flexible work arrangements as the preferred solution. Supportive workplace culture is the foremost precedent required for establishing formidable change management to ensure that the flexible work arrangements could help reduce the negative outcomes derived from the poor balance between the domains of work and family (Shantz, Alfes& Latham, 2016). The necessary implications that should be integrated into the formulation of strategic approaches needed for resolving the negative spillover in work-family and family-work interactions involve references to alteration in the hours of work and addressing the other relevant dimensions of shift work. 

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The research studies have indicated profound references to the impact of negative spillover in the case of shift workers rather than the individual workers employed in fixed shifts. The spillover of different shifts has to be evaluated to obtain a credible inference related to spillover in each stage without any controls. Therefore, the rotation among the shifts of employees should be prevented in the initial stages of induction of flexibility in the organizational framework (Direnzo, Greenhaus & Weer, 2015). 

The rotating shifts are responsible for the detrimental outcomes in the context of the negative spillover outcomes derived from work-family and family-work interfaces (Gabel Shemueli, et al., 2016). Therefore, the number of working hours has to be fixed in the case of employees alongside the provision of lax in terms of obtaining access to the individual’s family thereby leading to positive impacts on the spillover. 

Workforce control:

Another profound highlight that should be included in the strategic approach for the introduction of flexible work arrangements to address the negative spillover outcomes in the context of work-family and family-work interfaces is the reference to moderation of control of the workforce (Higgins, Duxbury & Julien, 2014). The observation of research study literature suggests that apart from the nature of the shift in terms of duration or nature of work involved, the independence or flexibility of an individual employee at the workplace is dictated by the variable of autonomy. 

The conventional perception of autonomy in the context of professional business management objectives has been largely associated with an emphasis on the dimensions of decision-making and job autonomy (Grosswald, 2003). Therefore the job autonomy was found to have a negative relationship with the negative spillovers from work-family interactions. The control imposed over the working hours could be a moderating factor for the relationship between the working hours and burnout which is mediating in nature. Therefore it can be perceived that the increase in the number of working hours is not specifically responsible for increasing the possibility of burnout (Spieler, et al., 2017). On the contrary, the employees should assume a personal role in identifying alignment between the schedules of their work and the actual work time desired from them by the organization to reduce the levels of burnout experienced in the workforce. Furthermore, the management of an organization has to consider the ambiguities related to job autonomy that implies the requirement to focus on other essential facets apart from the work hours. 

The autonomous decision-making should be aligned with the appropriate and relevant decision-making approaches that would not conflict with the perceived objectives and operational framework of the organization. Therefore, it is essential to notice the influence of supervisory support in the context of work-related issues and family-related concerns that have been identified with positive outcomes in terms of negative spillover in work-family interactions (König& De La Guardia, 2014). 

Dissertation Proposal

Recommendations:

The flexibility aspects to be integrated by the management to ensure flexible work arrangements for reduction of negative spillover due to the improper work-life balance also refer to the requirements for the number of working hours and the demographic variables associated with the negative spillover observed in work-family and family-work interfaces (Kim & Gordon, 2014). It is essential to obtain feedback from employees as a best practice for policy formulation to induce flexible working arrangements. 

The feedback from employees could facilitate considerable impressions regarding alterations in the working hours of different categories of employees thereby improving or decreasing their workload accordingly (Ma, et al., 2016). This factor could be specifically helpful for addressing the need for flexibility for female employees that have considerable trouble in catering to personal and family commitments due to the lack of time that is otherwise invested in professional pursuits. 

Education and occupation are also identified to be major demographic variables with potential impact on the work-life balance thereby implying their significance in developing flexibility in the working arrangements (Methot & LePine, 2016). One of the critical highlights to be noted concerning the measures for developing policy to cater to the negative spillovers observed in work-family and family-work contexts is the impact of ethnicity and race-based discrimination leading to work-family conflicts. 

The cultural ethos of an organization should be aligned with the specific precedents of diversity to present viable indications towards flexible and equal treatment of all employees at the workplace irrespective of their racial or ethnic background (Olson-Buchanan, Boswell & Morgan, 2016). The same policy measure could be extended towards employees with disabilities and special needs alongside female employees that should be determined with the integration of inferences from consultation with employees and stakeholders of the organization. 

The policy reforms have to be associated with notable references to the number of working hours and the scheduling of work (Rahman, et al., 2017). Furthermore, an organization should also understand the limitations of change management and resource allocations effectively to introduce flexible working arrangements to deal with the negative spillover outcomes observed in the work-family and family-work interface.

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Conclusion:

The report presented a cognizable illustration of the definition and impacts of negative work-family and family-work conflicts followed by a reflection on the essential strategic requirements for addressing the same. The strategic approaches presented references for ‘best practices that can be implemented to ensure productive implementation of flexible work arrangements to reduce the negative spillover of work-family and family-work interfaces.  

References

Bogaerts, Y., De Cooman, R., & De Gieter, S. (2016). Work and Nonwork Boundary Integration through a Person-Environment Fit Lens: The Introduction of Work-Nonwork Boundary Fit.

Creed, P. A., French, J., & Hood, M. (2015). Working while studying at university: The relationship between work benefits and demands and engagement and well-beingJournal of Vocational Behavior86, 48-57.

Davies, E. M., van der Heijden, B. I. J., & Flynn, M. (2016). Is the relationship between work attitudes and retirement intentions influenced by socioeconomic status?.

Demsky, C. A., Ellis, A. M., & Fritz, C. (2014). Shrugging it off: Does psychological detachment from work mediate the relationship between workplace aggression and work-family conflict?. Journal of occupational health psychology19(2), 195.

Direnzo, M. S., Greenhaus, J. H., &Weer, C. H. (2015). Relationship between protean career orientation and work-life balance: A resource perspective. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 36(4), 538-560.

Gabel Shemueli, R., Dolan, S. L., Suárez Ceretti, A., & Nuñez del Prado, P. (2016). Burnout and engagement as mediators in the relationship between work characteristics and turnover intentions across two IberoAmerican nations. Stress and Health32(5), 597-606.

George, E. (2015). The negative Spillover effect of Work-Family/Family-Work interfaces among service employees.Asia Pacific Journal of Research Vol: I. Issue XXX.

Grosswald, B. (2003). Shift work and negative work-to-family spillover. J. Soc. & Soc. Welfare, 30, 31.

Higgins, C., Duxbury, L., & Julien, M. (2014). The relationship between work arrangements and work-family conflict. Work48(1), 69-81.

Kim, N., & Gordon, J. R. (2014). Addressing the Stress of Work and Elder Caregiving of the Graying Workforce: The Moderating Effects of Financial Strain on the Relationship Between WorkCaregiving Conflict and Psychological WellBeing. Human Resource Management53(5), 723-747.

König, C. J., & De La Guardia, M. E. C. (2014). Exploring the positive side of personal internet use at work: Does it help in managing the border between work and nonwork?. Computers in Human Behavior, 30, 355-360.

Lin, W. R., Chen, H. M., & Sun, C. K. (2015). A Study on the Relationship between Work-Family Conflicts and the Job Satisfaction of Tour Leaders.Journal of Tourism and Recreation, 2(1), 41-52.

Ma, Y., Xie, J., Ma, H., Zhou, Y., & Zhang, X. (2016). Relationship between Work-home Segmentation Preference and Work Interference with Nonwork: The role of Boundary Management. International Journal of Psychology51, 798.

Methot, J. R., & LePine, J. A. (2016). Too close for comfort? Investigating the nature and functioning of work and non-work role segmentation preferences. Journal of Business and Psychology31(1), 103-123.

Olson-Buchanan, J. B., Boswell, W. R., & Morgan, T. J. (2016). 24 The Role of Technology in Managing the Work and Nonwork Interface. The Oxford Handbook of Work and Family, 333.

Rahman, A., Sa’adah, N., Amin, S. M., Mahadi, N., & Ismail, F. (2017). The Relationship Between Work-Family Balance and Affective Organizational Commitment Among Academic Staff of Malaysian Research Universities. Advanced Science Letters23(1), 482-485.

Shockley, K. M., Shen, W., DeNunzio, M. M., Arvan, M. L., & Knudsen, E. A. (2017). Disentangling the Relationship Between Gender and Work-Family Conflict: An Integration of Theoretical Perspectives Using Meta-Analytic Methods. The Journal of applied psychology.

Shantz, A., Alfes, K., & Latham, G. P. (2016). The buffering effect of perceived organizational support on the relationship between work engagement and behavioral outcomes. Human resource management, 55(1), 25-38.

Spieler, I., Scheibe, S., Stamov-Roßnagel, C., & Kappas, A. (2017). Help or hindrance? Day-level relationships between flextime use, work–nonwork boundaries, and affective well-being. Journal of Applied Psychology102(1), 67.

Syrek, C. J., Kühnel, J., Vahle-Hinz, T., & De Bloom, J. (2017). Share, like, Twitter, and connect: Ecological momentary assessment to examine the relationship between non-work social media use at work and work engagement. Work & Stress, 1-19.

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