Unit 13 Managing Human Resources in H&SC Sample

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Introduction

Effective selection and recruitment must be the key purpose to having a good and efficient human resource in the health care organizations, in this case, the London Nursing Home. An important factor regarding the effectiveness of these functions is the limit to which London Nursing Home would be able to attract the group of committed human resources who remain within the health care organization (Brunetto et al., 2014). Most of the factors affect the retention of the employees which in return affect the procedures of employee retention, recruitment, and selection which has a huge impact on the team will.

Unit 13 Managing Human Resources in H&SC

Task 1

1.1)   The factors to be considered when planning the recruitment of individuals

The factors that are needed to be considered while planning the recruitment of individuals to work at London Nursing Home are very concise. The first factor that is to be considered is the overall objective of the recruitment with views or focus on what London Nursing Home wants to achieve. For instance, while some of the recruitment might be devised to replace an existing employee due to the underperformance of the health care worker, in this case, the other recruitment may be conducted due to the replacing the previous employee with a new employee.  the recruiters in the London Nursing Home need to keep in mind the availability of the candidates who fulfil the requirements of the job, who have already gained some experience by working in some other health are the organization  (internal recruitment)  or who happen to reside within the healthcare area ( external recruitment). If such candidates are not available, the management at London Nursing Home must consider the financial consequences that are associated with either the training candidates to the needed levels or offering the relocation remuneration or incentives for encouraging the skilled employees for health care services from to other areas (Cooke & Bartram, 2015).  Once such decisions such description by the human resource management of the London Nursing Home, the organizations then have to consider the ways to attract the appropriate candidates for the available vacancies and roles. Advertisement of the available jobs in the areas where there is the availability of the adequate skills of high quality in the local area has to be conducted in the local newspaper and also in the job centres in the locality. However,  in the case when such type of skilled candidates are not available in the local area, the human resource management team of  London Nursing Home can consider utilizing the power provided by the Internet, job fairs and agencies who deal with jibs for ensuring that they attract appropriate and skilled candidates (Clarke et al., 2017).

1.2 Home Country – Relevant legislative and policy frameworks

There are various legislative acts that control the procedure of selection and recruitment of the candidates in London Nursing Home. Such acts include the Equality Act 1996, the Race Relations (Amendment) Act 2000, and the Employment Rights Act 1996.  All these Acts form mental for reducing any kind of discrimination of candidates on the basis of sexual orientation, disability, gender, race, beliefs or religion within the recruitment, selection and employment procedures (Klinga et al., 2016). These Acts happen to be reinforced by been formed a number of recruitment policies and government employment like improving the opportunities and scope for the older people., making the market for labour more flexible, fair and efficient and assisting the employers of London Nursing Home to make formed with and safer recruitment decisions. Moreover, along with these policies of the government, the human resource management team of the London Nursing Home will also have to obtain their own devised policies for controlling and regulating the recruitment process, such policies will mostly contain the elements of anti-discrimination? For instance, the General Social Care Council (2010) has issued a Code of Practice for the recruiters and employers belonging to the social and health care industry (Kooij et al., 2014).  This specific code of practice is devised for complementing the legislative framework which has been made by the government and consists part of the extensive package of recruitment for the recruitment and employment of the social and health care industry.  The employers, within this policy, are given the responsibility for ensuring that the candidates who are suitable for entering the human resource force of the organization and that preformatted procedures and rules are in accordance with ensuring that exploitation and discrimination are made to be avoided within the organization (Low et al., 2014).

1.3) The different approaches for the selection of the best individuals

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The conventional process of selection usually follows the submission of the CV or application form by the candidate. The perspective recruiter of the London Nursing Home should then review the job applications and choose the candidates who appear to have the best and appropriate knowledge, skills and level of experience or training that is needed for the job. These candidates should then be called for an interview session that can be conducted by an individual recruiter, a selection or a board of recruiters (Shantz, Alfes & Arevshatian, 2016). During the selection process, the candidates should be asked various questions in which the quality of answers have to be graded, hence providing a final score after the interview process.  The candidate who happens to score the highest grades should be offered the job, in other perspectives; this process may prove to be more articulated candidates being offered the job despite the actual capacity to justify the job roles.  Another effective approach for the process of recruitment is the assessment centre, where numerous exercises can be used for interpreting the job roles that are available (Witham et al., 2015).  Such assessment centres can be in the forms of group activities and exercises, individual role plays, behavioural tests, capability questions or psychometric tests that are structured.  The assessors will assess the performance of the candidates from these tests, hence; predict the individuals’ attitude for the available roles.

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Task 2

2.1) The theories individuals interaction in groups

The very renowned theory regarding team and group working is the Tuckman’s Model.  Tuckman categorized the interaction of the team into 4 different phases storming, forming, performing and norming. The initial step is forming where all the members get to learn the challenges and opportunities that are faced by the team (Shantz, Alfes & Arevshatian, 2016).  There will be a high dependence level on their respective manager regarding their guidance and the group or team will be associated or deepen the bond together, forming alliances and friendships along with sharing information related to their personal life.

The second step is controlling where the members of the team get into an agreement over the resolutions for their respective team. The members of the team are enabled to talk and discuss openly their views or opinions and gain the ability for adjusting their manners and behaviours for avoiding conflict (Klinga et al., 2016). The members of the teams agree on the values, professional behaviour, methods and rules of work. The final step in the theory is performing where the organizational team completely understands, supports and cooperates with one another, hence, working as a  single unit instead of working as individuals. The teams or groups which have reached this step happen to present very high levels of knowledge, competence, autonomy, and motivation.

There are two types of teams in the health care industry which are formal and informal. The formal team is a structure which was which is a structured team that has been formed with a particular purpose in mind. This kind of team will gain a more definite leader and every member of the team will happen to have a specific role (Cooke & Bartram, 2015).  An instance of such a team is the theatre team which is led by the surgeon along with the anaesthetists and various other staff assisting the surgeon during the procedures of the operation.

The informal teams are supposed to have no structure and each team member has equal status. The formations of the teams which are multi-disciplinary within the health care industry mostly happen to pursue such description of the team. A remarkable instance of an informal team is that can be provided by using the study of a case of a child in social care. This scenario by a child may happen to have certain specifications regarding the educational needs, may happen to suffer from mental or behavioural health issues or may happen to need counselling. An informal team is required in such a scenario by the association between the education providers, foster careers, counselling services and child psychiatrists who will jointly work in collaboration for ensuring the best results regarding the health of the child.

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2.2 The approaches to develop and promote effective team working at London Nursing Home

Many approaches can be taken for providing assistance in regards to the development of an effective working team. These approaches include team structuring activities and brainstorming activities. It is, however, the role and contribution of a leader of the team for ensuring that the harmony of the team is maintained. This can be obtained by ensuring that all the members of the team need to have a chance or scope of suggesting ideas or resolutions along with referring,  encouraging the environment of effective listening via regular meetings of the team while assuring the solutions or problems that are followed up and not made to be ignored. It is very much important to ensure that each and every feedback is very constructive without the necessity of being extremely critical as any kind of negative feedback can happen to restrict or constraint the flow of data or information which ultimately will damage the morale of the team of London Nursing Home (Brunetto et al., 2014). Eventually, the manager of the team of London Nursing Home must be able to maintain and regulate all the routes and lines of communication open for encouraging the exchange of data or information.  It is imperative to understand that this can be implemented through detailed conversations over the phone, email, face to face conversations or elaborate letters. It is also necessary for every individual of the team of London Nursing Home to be aware and vigilant towards their role in passing down the organizational information to the other members of the team which was one of the issues that were observed among the employees of the London Nursing Home.  The team of the human resource has to have interaction with the other members as they continue to work together in rendering care to the patients. The team members of the human resource of London Nursing Home may have an approach to need an explicit decision for co-operating in the gaining a meeting point of the shared objective. This would need the members of the team to sacrifice their autonomy by facilitating or allowing their activity to be regulated by the overall team of the human resource. It can happen either through shared decision making or decision making by the leader of the team.  As an outcome, the accountability and responsibilities of the healthcare professionals who are working as a unit or team involve the activities that they happen to deliver due to their specialized knowledge or skills but also the activities that are outcomes form the team members’ commitment to regulating the activities which are performed by their mate of the team, including regulating and managing the conflict which may happen. The team of employees at London Nursing Home need to realize that is they are going to implement the work in a very effective way through co-ordination of their efforts for achieving the objectives of the team and they need to have regular meetings so as to have that information get shared and the decision to be made collectively. It is also important to have a component of the working team to construct the sharing of understanding the work and the suitable processes for providing high-quality services to the patients.

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Task 3

3.1 Approaches for performance appraisal of workers in health and social care:

Performance management has been broadly associated with the concept of forming a shared impression pertaining to objectives, approach for accomplishing objectives and management of people thereby improving the probabilities for acquiring success in the workplace. Literature and research studies have explicitly pointed out the existence of numerous approaches that could measure the performance of individuals in health and social care organizations (Cooke & Bartram, 2015). Some of the approaches include the identification of the current performance level of employees and the potential areas for improvement, monitoring of performance levels of the candidates and establishing specific standards for accomplishing desired performance levels. These approaches for performance appraisal are associated with some generic components such as measurement, feedback, agreement, sharing of ideas and positive reinforcement.

Measurement could be defined as the comparison of individual performance levels with the standard goals established by the London Nursing Home. The outcomes of measurement are conveyed to the individual employees which facilitates them with information related to the progress in their performance that is referred to as feedback. Positive reinforcement is the subsequent stage of feedback in which the employees are criticized with positive feedback in order to improvise in that particular sector. Exchange of ideas is perceived as a notable contributor to the performance appraisal of an employee in health and social care owing to the acquisition of a comprehensive impression of the mistakes committed by an individual in the past and the potential sources through which they could be rectified. The final component of performance appraisal in London Nursing Home refers to an agreement that is characterized by a comprehensive understanding of employee objectives and discussions among employees to reach decisions for a common course of action (Shantz, Alfes & Arevshatian, 2016). The contemporary challenges in the domain of health and social care have increased the necessity to determine the effectiveness of workers in the sector hence impinging on the requirement of innovative performance appraisal methods. Some examples of other approaches followed for monitoring performance could be noticed in the establishment of individual targets and key performance indicators. Furthermore, the developments in contemporary management literature are reflective of the prominent use of resources such as 360-degree feedback commonly in corporate culture. The application of 360-degree feedback allows the identification of feedback related to individual performance from peers, subordinates, customers as well as colleagues.

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3.2 Identification of training and development needs:

Employees are required to possess comprehensive information pertaining to their job which assists them in performing efficiently. Therefore, it can be observed that training and recruitment are liable for addressing major human resources management objectives of London Nursing Home. The provision of individual training and development is accountable for long term outcomes such as improvement of organizational performance and employee retention which are perceived as essential requisites in the recruitment and selection process for health and social care organizations. Performance appraisal is the most commonly applied tool for identifying areas of weakness in an individual which can be used for observing the areas in which employees require training and development (Kooij et al., 2014). The consistent emphasis on performance appraisal allows keeping a tab of unaccomplished targets that could form the basis for future training requirements. Managers are required to monitor the performance of workers in London Nursing Home so that the quality of care is not perceived as insufficient by patients. It is imperative to apprehend that no individual is completely perfect and hence the reassessment of business objectives, monitoring performance quality, evaluation of weak sections, addressing problem domains and critical activities and identification of training and development needs could be perceived as essential requirements (Clarke et al., 2017). The use of a continuous professional development framework could also be a potential attribute for improving the precise identification of employee training and development requisites. The inclusion of formal courses, self-directed reading practice workshops and seminar attendance could be accountable as promising measures for addressing the training and development needs of individuals in London Nursing Home.

3.3 Strategies for continuous development of workers in health and social care:

Incentives and feedback pertaining to the performance of an individual are accounted as two essential rationales for the continuous development of individuals in London Nursing Home. Performance feedback is estimated as a credible determinant of an individual’s performance since an impression of personal performance would be helpful for the individual to focus on further stages of professional development (Cooke & Bartram, 2015). Performance feedback in the sector of health and social organizations could be addressed through the utilization of targets and appraisals. The feedback should be credible, specific, relevant and significant for communicating the team objectives and targets consistently to employees. The performance feedback is followed by the provision of incentives which are generally provided in the form of salary increments and training rewards or bonuses. The application of continuous professional development is considered a mandatory obligation presently for workers in London Nursing Home since they have to be constantly updated regarding information and expertise relevant to the professional domain of the employees. The continuous development of employees is also promoted by various strategic approaches such as the Kaizen strategy which can be significant for improving the performance quality of employees in London Nursing Home. First of all, employees have to be aptly emphasized on reducing waste as the profound subject of emphasis to resolve organizational issues (Shantz, Alfes & Arevshatian, 2016). Kaizen strategy is also associated with the development of opportunities for discussions and exchange of ideas among managers and employees which are followed by quick action on the innovative ideas facilitated by employees. The measures for an effective staff development program could be associated with the clear illustration of job requirements such as skills and relevant set of expertise. The precise depiction of job requirements as well as communication between supervisors and managers with employees could be assumed as favourable opportunities for employees to focus on objectives that are derived from team goals. Studies communicate that appraisals serve as significant elements of a staff development program since the outcomes of appraisals enable the proliferation of a logical development process specific for the case of each employee. Specific training for health and social care personnel as well as distinct targets aligned towards accomplishing common objectives could also be observed as prolific strategies for continuous professional development of workers in health and social care organizations.

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Task 4

4.1 Theories of leadership in the context of health and social care organizations:

The particular leadership theories which can be perceived as productive attributes in health and social care organizations refer to the situational model and the behavioural theoretical model. The behavioural theoretical model can be considered as the twin brother of the trait theory which is characterized by a formal emphasis on educating individuals about the function of leadership. The development of behavioural theory emerged as an outcome of criticism for trait theory. The different studies of researchers and theorists on behavioural patterns of an individual and its impact on leadership effectiveness contributed to the identification of the fact that leaders are inclined towards higher power rather than affiliation with employees (Kooij et al., 2014). The behavioural theory also suggests that the effectiveness and influence of leaders are vested in the self-controlled nature of leadership.

The situational leadership theory has been associated with the existence of distinct styles and patterns of leadership which are assumed according to the distinct positions and levels within an organization. The situational theory is also reflective of the fact that the most feasible leadership pattern is dependent on situational factors thereby leading to the existence of three prominent situational leadership styles such as democratic, laissez-faire and authoritarian leadership. Authoritarian leadership style is considered for its efficiency especially during periods of crisis and is not associated with efficient outcomes when applied consistently since it leads to depreciation of employee morale. Therefore the application of democratic leadership is associated with effectiveness in scenarios that demand higher flexibility alongside consensus. Laissez-faire type of leadership is considered effective in scenarios where effective leadership is not in place thereby suggesting the prominence of autonomy. Laissez-faire leadership style can be categorized into two distinct groups i.e. task-oriented and relationship-oriented leadership which is characterized by the adoption of individual approaches to accomplish assigned responsibilities. However, the effectiveness of situational leadership is realized only when the orientation of the leader is aligned with organizational objectives (Cooke & Bartram, 2015). The limitations to the above-mentioned approaches to leadership can be observed in the lack of a general leadership style that could integrate situational and contingency leadership approaches. The application of behavioural leadership theory can be applied feasibly in the case of London Nursing Home since it is dependent on deriving inferences. Supervisors and managers could obtain flexible approaches for managing their subordinates through following the behavioural theory. The situational theory of leadership could also prove to be equally effective in the domain of health and social care especially in the context of complex issues noticed in the workplace. For example, employees such as nurses and healthcare providers are trained to facilitate emergency treatment procedures so that they could be able to take the initiative in absence of trained professionals.

4.2 Management of working relationships:

The management of working relationships at London Nursing Home could be ensured through the resourceful and validated allocation of tasks for working individuals. The awareness of every individual organizational member regarding their job roles and responsibilities can be a beneficial attribute for the management of working relationships. The awareness of employees about their roles and responsibilities limits the probabilities for conflicts among workers as well as between layers of management in the organization. Working relationships within the context of organizations in health and social care could be managed based on prominent attributes such as trust, awareness, openness, mutual respect and effective communication (Brunetto et al., 2014). Trust serves as the key foundation for working relationships within any organization and the element of trust enables the proliferation of credibility and honesty among individuals which allows them to interact flexibly with other workers. Awareness of other employees, as well as respect for their innovative thoughts for improving workplace environment and performance, could also serve as vital inputs for the management of working relationships in a health and social care organization. An understanding of diverse perspectives and backgrounds of team members enables the promotion of a culture of openness thereby enabling them for higher involvement with London Nursing Home.

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4.3 Influence of management approach on personal development:

I have been actively involved as the Human Relations Officer of London Nursing Home and the pressure of workload to resolve the issues of high employee turnover was evident. Team working and leadership were the two profound themes pertaining to management that affected my personal development as an employee in the health and social care organization. Leadership in the context of the workplace environment was largely observed in my situational approach to preparing myself for objectives laid by senior management. I had the responsibility of providing training and development for existing employees so that the employee turnover is reduced which enabled me to motivate the care staff for accomplishing change in the standards of their performance. I was able to acquire a comprehensive interpretation of various aspects of behavioural and situational theories of leadership that helped me in promoting teamwork effectively. One of the profound pitfalls faced by London Nursing Home was the lack of collaborative work by employees particularly observed in the minimal communication of significant messages by staff (Shantz, Alfes & Arevshatian, 2016). Therefore, team working was perceived as a vital integration in personal skillset for management of HR in the organization. Provision of opportunities for mentoring employees was also helpful for inducing effectiveness in my professional role. The implications of consistent professional development enabled me to identify potential weaknesses regarding the planning of recruitment and selection processes. The comprehensive evaluation of employee performance, requirements of nursing staff based on current competence levels and objectives for future professional development also serve as cognizable influences on management imposed by personal experience. Career developments in the context of human resource management in health and social care organizations are also dependent on the factors and policies pertaining to recruitment and selection. I was able to apprehend the significance of various policies and legislation pertaining to recruitment and selection in the domain of health and social care. This factor contributes to personal development with the essential dimensions of amicable working relationships and identification of appropriate leadership styles to monitor employees in London Nursing Home. The comprehensive evaluation of target setting and task allocation as determinants of management efficiency in an organization could be also considered as prominent influences on personal development.

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References

Brunetto, Y., Shacklock, K., Teo, S. and Farr-Wharton, R., 2014. The impact of management on the engagement and well-being of high emotional labour employees. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 25(17), pp.2345-2363.

Cooke, F.L. and Bartram, T., 2015. Guest editors’ introduction: human resource management in health care and elderly care: current challenges and toward a research agenda. Human Resource Management, 54(5), pp.711-735.

Clarke, C.S., Round, J., Morris, S., Kharicha, K., Ford, J., Manthorpe, J., Iliffe, S., Goodman, C. and Walters, K., 2017. Exploring the relationship between frequent internet use and health and social care resource use in a community-based cohort of older adults: an observational study in primary care. BMJ open, 7(7), p.e015839.

Klinga, C., Hansson, J., Hasson, H. and Sachs, M.A., 2016. Co-leadership–A management solution for integrated health and social care. International journal of integrated care, 16(2).

Kooij, D.T., Jansen, P.G., Dikkers, J.S. and de Lange, A.H., 2014. Managing aging workers: A mixed methods study on bundles of HR practices for aging workers. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 25(15), pp.2192-2212.

Low, S., Tun, K.T., Mhote, N.P.P., Htoo, S.N., Maung, C., Kyaw, S.W., Shwe Oo, S.E.K. and Pocock, N.S., 2014. Human resources for health: task shifting to promote basic health service delivery among internally displaced people in ethnic health program service areas in eastern Burma/Myanmar. Global health action, 7(1), p.24937.

Shantz, A., Alfes, K. and Arevshatian, L., 2016. HRM in healthcare: the role of work engagement. Personnel Review, 45(2), pp.274-295.

Witham, M.D., Frost, H., McMurdo, M., Donnan, P.T. and McGilchrist, M., 2015. Construction of a linked health and social care database resource–lessons on process, content and culture. Informatics for Health and Social Care, 40(3), pp.229-239.

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