Sarah is a recently married 30-year-old English teacher who enjoys playing rugby 7s. Earlier today Sarah was hit hard during a tackle in her weekly rugby game. She immediately felt pain on the left side of her chest which got worse with every breath. She was having trouble breathing in that she felt she couldn’t “breath in” very well and her chest felt tight. The sports trainer on the ground called an ambulance as they suspected a pneumothorax. On the
way to the hospital Sarah’s symptoms began to worsen, her blood pressure started to drop and her heart rate increased. At the hospital she was taken for an X-ray where the diagnosis of a tension pneumothorax was made.
1. Compare and contrast a tension pneumothorax and a pneumothorax?
2. Using your knowledge of the processes and pressures involved in inspiration explain why Sarah is having trouble breathing
3. How would Sarah be treated and explain the physiological purpose of this treatment?
4. Explain one factor that can impact the affinity of haemglobin for oxygen?
5. What are the consequences of the tension pneumothorax on the cardiovascular system and how does this explain the symptoms of increased heart rate and decreased blood pressure?
6 months post recovery Patricia confirms she is pregnant. The growing fetus can impact a number of other physiological systems.
6. Choosing two (2) systems covered in systemic anatomy and physiology (endocrine, cardiovascular, respiratory, urinary and gastrointestinal) explain how pregnancy can impact them.