International Social Work Sample

Posted on May 27, 2022 by Cheapest Assignment

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Assessment Item 1—Developing a Presentation


International Social Work


A sociological theory is a statement formulated after observing the roots and the results of the behaviour of people in the social setup, whether at the level of a colony, city, state or country. There are various theories, and there are various cases of political and social atrocities. These are cases of dispossession and discrimination which overshadow a nation’s social, economic and political empowerment. Here is such a case, reflecting the journey of a life of suffering and uncertainty at a very young age; the life of Mr X.

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Mr X’s Case Study

Indian asylum seeker Mr X. is a good example of a socially affected person who was afflicted with various unfair retributions without any concrete proof against him. He certainly needs to be given empathy, sociological attention and moral support. As a social worker, the perspective is to correlate the theories of sociology with the real situation faced by Mr X and conclude the ways to assist him. There needs to be an understanding of the issues that are stated in the case so that sociologists can find ways to comfort MR. X as well as future cases of the same nature (Banks, 2001). There is an understanding that all the social theories and various social work practices are the results of various oppressions faced by mankind in various parts of the world. From time to time, human beings have raised their voices against various atrocities and as a consequence, various developments have occurred in the history of human beings. These developments have been seen in various disciplines such as philosophy, sociology, psychology, etc (Couldry, 2012). Various social workers around the world have done their best and sacrificed their happiness and well-being to rationalize the social works which were needed in societies.


Here is a social worker, one is liable to be highly concerned about Mr X., his problems as well as the plausible relief that can be thought of, for him. It is not only the plight of Mr X but of various human beings who have suffered through the decades because of no fault of their own (Banks, 2001).  My example of discussion is related to various people in the state of Jammu and Kashmir of India, who have been facing atrocities of different kinds and they have to seek asylum in different parts of the world. Similarly, Mr X, an Indian from Kashmir, was affected by unfavourable circumstances in his present stop and was moving to seek political asylum in Australia (Parrish, 2010).

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A Brief Study of the Jammu and Kashmir Problem

The issue of Jammu and Kashmir has been a matter of big concern for the various social workers. Initially, the state was under the rule of kings. But, the cunning policy of the British Raj while liberating India from their rule, made the problem complex. It was decided during independence to break the country of India into many parts. This led to the occurrence of communal violence and terrorism in Kashmir. Here, the Symbolic Interaction Theory states that people of a land act possessively in the influence of the perspective, generally framed subjectively by all (Parrish, 2010). A person accepts these notions and acts accordingly; making gestures against anyone who defies their notions or does not belong to their percept community. This is a cause of the origination of the plight of Mr X. There are clashes, fights and conflicts at all levels. BAlot of situations have occurred since early times as we can see in the case of Mr X. He was a young 20-year-old student with a bright future whose future is ruined by an unpleasant scenario when he was detained in prison and tortured for months, on the grounds of involvement in terrorism. This was a mere misunderstanding due to an act of helping others, by his Father. The scene became worse and fled on the way to his execution site. His life was saved but he was to see hardships. Since then he has been running around, scared of his own country; aiming now to seek political asylum in Australia.


This was so because Kashmir Indian army officials had a tendency, due to their possessiveness for their country, to retaliate without thinking, and torture innocent people who were assumed to be involved in Kashmir. Kashmir was witnessing mass killings of men and camp populations, rapes of women and all sorts of torture. This was in 1994. So terrified was Mr X. from his experiences and this scenario that he did not want to return to his country after nearly 4 long years, but wanted to go to Australia.   This is a bad state and the solution is a tight and extreme exercise of power. This will make a way to neutralize the assuming behaviour of people according to the Symbolic Interactive Theory.

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This is because there is no other way to control such a bad state of violence, barbarian attitude toward innocent people and the never-ending ramifications (, 2016). The Symbolic Interaction Theory describes how the Indian Security Organization acted out of its perception of Mr X being a criminal and pushed him to misery, and how at all stages he was looked at with apprehension, with a perspective so strongly framed that it did not allow anyone to see the vulnerability in the young man’s character. As a social worker, I would first take a solid step to march in a protest inviting people of my Country, so that Mr X’s story is communicated well. A public revolution against such meaningless and disastrous situations will lead to enabling societies to put a rein on the uncontrolled Government and would influence it to make discrete decisions regarding such cases and exhibit sensitive behaviour (Parton, 2000). There is no point in acting extremely without any proof, even for an entity like the Government.

Once there is awareness and weightage gained for getting justice and rehabilitation of Mr X, I shall make efforts to get him back to his country, his Home. Such Rehabilitation would include employing him decently, sheltering him and a respectable place in society. All his records of falsity stating him as being involved in supporting terrorists will be deleted and his social position will be reclaimed.


Rehabilitation of Displaced People

Seeing this in a general context as a social worker the area of concern remains that many people have been forced to leave their own homes and take shelter in refugee camps. If they are allowed to remain there and not deprived of their own homes and other resources,  the contentment will not germinate in those people and this will not to normal situation (Parton, 2000). There is a dire need for proper psychological treatment for these people and to provide them with all possible opportunities so that they come into the mainstream of the nation. As soon as possible, they must be sent to their own homes (Henwood & Pidgeon, 1992).

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Mr X. is probably the victim of the acts of many social and political miscreants who bring innocent civilians defamation and use their resources by not telling the truth.  Mr X.’s father was mercilessly and purposely killed by the Security forces of India. This was based on an accusation that he must be having a connection with the Jammu Kashmir Liberation Front (JKLF), which wanted to free Kashmir from India. This assumption was made based on the father’s act of allowing them to use his printing press. This is highly unfair (Tarrow & Tollefson, 1994). A simple Printing Press owner was so falsely implicated. The security forces used their authority and power with such rights that they killed an innocent man without thought or guilt. A theory of sociology called structural strain theory relates here meaning that there is sharp stress that swings over the heads of the residents of such societies which are facing communal problems, struggle and deprivation of resources every time (Chaiken & Trope, 1999). People have got into ugly acts due to the stress and strain, to avoid any danger that they feel. To dismiss the danger, and the deficit of peace and resources for living, they take defensive, inappropriate and deviant steps. They act against anyone who could probably act against their safety but would not do it certainly. The way to tackle this is to help everyone fight the strain simultaneously and bring unity in nations and countries as much as possible (Parton, 1996).  The misery of Mr X ensued even more severely, later. There are reasons which can be pointed out for such rowdy behaviour and following those reasons the actions needed for the social betterment of Mr X. can be thought of.


The Cultural  Disparity

The people of two religions namely Hinduism and Islam stay in the state of Jammu and Kashmir, and the whole of India. From time to time there has been a situation of hatred among them and this has led to not-peaceful conditions. They are treated differently too, by the Government at times, as seen. As a result, the people of one community seek reprisals anytime they get an opportunity, even a false one. This might have encouraged such behaviour against MR. X. (Butler, 2002). In this situation, the social respite will be to provide all religions equally and keep them satisfied.

The Political Problem

Though the state of Jammu and Kashmir is a part of India, it enjoys special status according to article 371 of the Indian constitution. The various laws, which apply to other parts of India, do not apply to the state of Jammu and Kashmir. This creates the problem of the un-uniformity of laws. The politicians also do not take it as their prime responsibility to solve the gross situations. On the other hand, make the social acts a power game. They play games of power. In turn, the people start playing games like cunningness and communalism. This could be a possibility of devastation in Mr X’s life.  These advantages may be in the form of prejudices, reservations, etc. They get an opportunity at times to take decisions like selfless transfer of power and benefits but they get selfish, failing on the rational choice theory of sociology (Tarrow & Tollefson, 1994). The Rational Choice Theory states that people pursuing money and power take irrational decisions of holding attitudes toward others. This is also an influence in bringing MR. X to his present plight.


For this, social workers should aid and promote good quality moral education. This will help all the nations take rational decisions (Crossman, 2016). The people from other parts of India are not welcome to become a part of Kashmir as they may acquire some property here. (Dominelli & Campling, 2002). This also reflects a streak of Symbolic Interaction theory. The native people get a strong notion of defence in their heads due to having been brought up with the learning that the country belongs to them and they are made owners of the place by God itself. This is not the fact as no land belongs to no one. The social worker must take strong helping steps, like ensuring the provision of employment to all, and the maximum emphasis should be on providing quality education, erasing any notions from the heads of youths (Healy, 2005). The youths, if go in the wrong direction, bring destruction and negativity. This will prevent more cases like Mr X’s, and will probably get him employment (Butler, 2002). I would as a social worker try to influence legislation to bring in reforms like aids for accused people and give them proper hearings to save their entire lives. The social workers must look the clearing their characters and bring relief of shelter and accommodation to them (Jenkins, 1996).

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Another Challenge that Mr X. is facing in the present time is the stability, of seeking Political Asylum after leaving his country. He could never rest in peace and was at the mercy of people, facing death and threats; being abandoned again and again. He stayed in the Australian Captivity for 2 and a half years but did not disclose his real name for the fear of the antagonistic attitude he would have to face if he was sent back to India, following the revelation of his real name and identity. He had faced months of beating and third-degree torture in the Kashmir Jail in 1994, and thus he considered being in Australian Jail anytime better than returning to his own country’s custody. This reflects the poor condition of Indian law, and the barbarianism of the Indian Jails (Turner, 2014). It needs the Indian society to adopt the functional aspects as stated in the functional theory of sociology   Functionalism sees parts of society in sync and contributing to the balance of the entire society. Society is more holistic in structure. The institutions act as smaller parts of the society, which function to make a complete system providing for the people. And these parts are interdependent (Allan, Pease & Briskman, 2003). For example, the government or state provides education for the children of the family, which in turn pays taxes on which the state depends to keep itself running. Like the employment department is dependent on the education scene, the social order depends on the political system, etc. Thus, as seen here, Mr X. Got homeless and lost his education due to poor law, wandered around due to poor political scenarios, and is still bent on going to Australia. This shows that India as a whole intimidates him more. There is a strong need for the transformation of the society in pursuance of the functional theory, to avoid such miseries (Baker, 2012).


If Mr X, has to be brought back to India, his native country, there will be the need for firm action from several Human rights enforcing authorities of the world as well as India, This is because his journey has been touching other nations too.  He needs assistance in reaching a stable land, be it Australia or India. Mr X. will need a lot of assurance and support to get the confidence to return to India. So, as a social worker, I will stand undeterred by his side.   Concrete steps need to be taken on priorities so that the problem of refugees and shelter can be solved to a major extent (Napier & Fook, 2000). He will have to be rehabilitated well, here. If he wants to migrate to Australia, I would request the Australian Government to show leniency in dealing with him while the immigration process, depending on the facts and circumstances (Pease & Fook, 1999).  Detaining innocent people endlessly should not be allowed as this destroys one’s mental and physical health. Social revolution, personal attention and thoughtful action by social workers can help such disparities faint in countries. This is the battle of mankind, and if this happens the social order and peace would surely prevail (Payne & Campling, 1997).

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How Mr X could be saved from the suffering, and how will he ever be able to get over all the nightmares of his young years, is a huge issue. The social workers must understand that the need is more of practical action than that of theoretical nature. Mr X must be allowed to settle in India, or aided to move to Australia to seek asylum. If convinced he should be brought to his country ensuring that his care would be taken every moment he is here. This will need strong influence over the Government, society and younger generations (Sibeon, 2004). He has wandered enough and a local identity would provide him with a lot of relief (Best, 2003). Once he reaches the intended land, he must be given a warm behaviour, and good support to let him to some extent fill the void of his early years. These should be my concern as a social worker.  Social workers over the country should mark a movement in his support; reflect on his life in public and let the awareness seep in (Stryker & Burke, 2000). Steps should be taken to increase fair trials, travel support, financial rehabilitation, etc. in India (Schwartz, 1999). Kashmir youth must be educated and rehabilitated and even those who went the wrong way as a result of violence against them must be endeared, befriended, and taken care of.

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Allan, J., Pease, B., & Briskman, L. (2003). Critical social work: An introduction to theories and practices.

Best, S. (2003). A beginner’s guide to social theory. London: SAGE.

Baker, J. (2012). Theorising Survival. eContent Management Pty Ltd.

Banks, S. (2001). Ethics and values in social work.

Butler, I. (2002). A code of ethics for social work and social care research. British Journal of Social Work, 32(2), 239-248.

Chaiken, S., & Trope, Y. (Eds.). (1999). Dual-process theories in social psychology. Guilford Press.

Crossman, A. (2016). 14 Sociology Theories You Should Be Familiar With. Education. Retrieved 15 March 2016, from

Couldry, N. (2012). Media, society, world: Social theory and digital media practice. Polity.

Dominelli, L., & Campling, J. (2002). Anti-oppressive social work theory and practice. Palgrave Macmillan.

Henwood, K. L., & Pidgeon, N. F. (1992). Qualitative research and psychological theorizing. British journal of psychology, 83(1), 97-111.

Healy, K. (2005). Social work theories in context. Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan.

Jenkins, R. (1996). Social identity. London: Routledge.

Napier, L., & Fook, J. (2000). Breakthroughs in practice: Theorising critical moments in social work. Whiting & Birch.

Parrish, M. (2010). Social work perspectives on human behaviour. Maidenhead: Open University Press.

Parton, N. (1996). Social theory, social change and social work. London: Routledge.

Payne, M., & Campling, J. (1997). Modern social work theory. Chicago, Ill.: Lyceum Books.

Pease, B., & Fook, J. (1999). Transforming social work practise: Postmodern critical perspectives. Psychology Press.

Parton, N. (2000). Some thoughts on the relationship between theory and practice in and for social work. British Journal of Social Work, 30(4), 449-463.

Sibeon, R. (2004). Rethinking social theory. London: Sage Publications.

Schwartz, S. H. (1999). A theory of cultural values and some implications for work. Applied psychology, 48(1), 23-47.

Stryker, S., & Burke, P. J. (2000). The past, present, and future of an identity theory. Social psychology quarterly, 284-297. (2016). Sociology’s Four Theoretical Perspectives: Structural-Functional, Social Conflict, Feminism & Symbolic Interactionism – Video & Lesson Transcript. Retrieved 15 March 2016, from

Turner, J. (2014). Theoretical sociology. Los Angeles: SAGE Publications.

Tarrow, S. G., & Tollefson, J. (1994). Power in movement: Social movements, collective action and politics (pp. 41-61). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.


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