MBA – International Business Sample

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MBA – International Business


In this busy world, we see that the events in our lives happen at a very fast pace and at times it becomes difficult to move on par with them. Amidst all the fast-moving events what remains constant is the fact of struggling to live. In the process, we see that negotiating an issue has been a very common aspect (Butler & Matthew, 2013). Negotiation might not land a party with the better facilities but would certainly provide some advantages over the previously existing conditions.


The given statement goes as follows. “Negotiation is not a process reserved only for the skilled diplomat, top salesperson, or ardent advocate for an organized lobby; it is something that everyone does, almost daily.” 

The statement has a lot of relevance and feasibility as it can be proved in all the real-life events that we go through. Be it the case of lower-middle-class people, they negotiate to get something good out of all that they possess. Negotiating with the right people can make them get the right facilities at the perfect prices (Beenen & Barbuto, 2014). For the middle-class people, it is a very common aspect that they keep on negotiating to get better facilities at the cost that they spend. They happen to be adjusting but still negotiate to get better. When talking of the rich class people, it is a common feature that they negotiate to get better too (Bear & Babcock, 2012). Hence it is evident that negotiation as a process is practised not just by the poor section of the society but is also followed by people belonging to the elite class. Trying all sorts of negotiation policies can be a waste for a person or party and hence it is a fact that one must make sure of using the right skills for negotiation.

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Critical evaluation:

As mentioned above it is seen that the practice of negotiation is done almost everywhere and almost every day. Hence it is a fact that it is a normal and very common phenomenon.  When it is the case of skilled diplomats we see that they negotiate very often. As an example, it can be seen that the diplomats have all the skills but when it comes to getting their services paid, they look to negotiate so that they get the profit out of it and make it beneficial for the other party (Dygert & Van, 2015). Top class salespersons are the ones who own a lot of property and make a lot of business. They happen to rest in the position of all the experience and profits that they gain. But in the real world, they look forward to getting negotiations in the business. During work hours, it is very common that the salespersons to negotiate to get the best deals in their hands. Negotiation in this process helps them to get the best deals and make good business too (Dygert & Parang, 2013). Ardent advocates are the ones who are looked upon when it comes to fighting cases of big tycoons and people with huge reputations. They offer deals and at the end of the case take the turn to negotiating with the clients. When it comes to business tycoons, they look forward to the best deals and tenders. This makes them get the work done and mint good money too (Fernandez & Roberts, 2015).

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Coming to the weaker sections of the society, we see that the process of negotiation happens to be common too. When it is about the lifestyles, people negotiate to get some amount of facilities that would be better than what they are being provided within the current scenario.  But the baseline of the analysis is that negotiation is a very common prospect that has become very frequent (Furnham, 2012). The only point of difference arises when it comes to the process. In the case of the elite class of the society, it happens with the use of technology and advanced features. The topic of negotiation happens to be in huge countable of capital and investment. When it comes to the lower sections the process might be orally and with the involvement of a lower amount of capital in the deal (Fox, Alexander & Howieson, 2015).

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Skills remain the same at all times:

It is a fact that the skills used in the process of negotiation are similar and the process happens to differ. It can be argued that one can follow different ways to negotiate in a process but it is a fact that the skills used to make negotiations remain the same and constant (Goldman & Shapiro, 2012). Following them effectively can make sure that one will have an effective negotiation and thus end up having a positive outcome in favour.

Negotiation skills:

Building a rapport:

It is important to have a rapport with the opposite party in the negotiation. This helps to make the process happen conveniently and easily. A strong feeling of bond helps to make the deal better which would help to maintain respect from both sides (Guse et al., 2012). This will end in bringing a beneficial outcome to both sides of the negotiation table.


Reduction of misinterpretations:

It is important to reduce the misunderstandings that often show up in case of discussion and negotiations. It is regarded to be one of the key aspects of effective negotiations. This can be made sure by reflecting the truth, clarifying well and using the inference built well. Once misunderstandings are checked, one can be assured of having an effective negotiation in the best possible way.

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Having an assertion in the mind helps to be prepared for the best and then prepare for the best to happen (Hamerstone & Hough, 2013). Once prepared, it can be helpful to the negotiators to land up in the case of winning the negotiation or losing it. This can make the process of negotiation go in a positive direction.


When it is verbal communication, it is important to listen to the speaker. This can make way for effective communication and negotiation (McCarthy & Hay, 2015).

These are the basic skills that one needs to know before the process of negotiation. The skills used remain the same for all the types of negotiation processes be it with the skilled diplomats or any other section of the society. Hence it is agreeable that the above statement is a fact.

Key terms in the process of negotiation:


It is referred to the outcome that is to be found after the completion of the process. Goals are set before a process and they are fixed as milestones to be hit during the negotiation.

Modern Technology


These are the backup plans that are kept at the back of the mind. These are useful at the time when the discussion does not get anywhere productive. At the worst and most unproductive times, the alternatives are used (Matsuura et al., 2013).



It refers to the facts and features that can be offered during the process of negotiation. Trades can be of any kind and hence they can be tangible and of any respect.

Literature Review:

Negotiation is a process that has been used in the existence of humankind since its inception. It is evident that the process of negotiation still exists and is in practice in the present day. According to the theory given by De Galleries, there is always a need for continual negotiation between couples of states (Matsuura et al., 2013). To have an effective negotiation he urged to have people representing the two states individually. Right after the negotiation, the states sign a treaty and hence the negotiation is set.

Moreover, negotiation is the art of letting someone else the things in one’s way as written by David Frost. Hence it is a common practice and happens to be prevailing in the present world also. In the process of negotiation, it is important to involve the concept of advocacy as it helps in the process of influencing the other side of the discussion. This theory is often used by employers to negotiate with the agents to attain increments. Being rational helps in the process as it acts as a strategy that solves the complications in the process. Rationalism acts as an alternative plan for the negotiators and thus can be used effectively in every field (Page & Mukherjee, 2014). Super rationality happens to keep the negotiator in a diplomatic position and then continue with the process. Using the policy of tit for tat is a very common phenomenon as used by a maximum of the negotiators in the world today. As suggested by the rich diplomats and big salespersons, it happens to be the most prompt and exclusive way of negotiation.

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As used by the common man and every other employee in the corporate world it is effective to make time during negotiation. Delaying the process when the opposition happens to get profit is a convenient way to negotiate. It is easy to implement the delaying techniques and thus buys time easily (Sims & Carter, 2016). Callings bluffs are a common practice that is done during the process of negotiation these days. In the present day, when it comes to salary negotiations, employees claim to have better offers but at times they bluff. So it is a safe move to call for the bluffs and check the written forms of the offer so that it is confirmed.

Negotiators today have a common process using the first information as the anchor and they stick to it. Hence it is a safe move to make by providing the best information at first. In the world of sales, it is safe to be the first one to place the information (Susilo et al., 2013). This would ensure the fact that the ball is in our court and the game can be played accordingly. As mentioned by Lao Tzu, a highly skilled diplomat will be capable enough to lead the other side of the negotiation to the desired inference. It is advisable not to attack the opponent or make them feel worse. In such conditions, it is the responsibility to improve the conditions as this will help to end the negotiation in a better manner. According to the tycoons of big organisations, it is better to keep the opponents in good positions. In the process of negotiations, big diplomats do not criticise the ground (Sambuco et al.,2013). They follow the policy of having frank discussions and avoid using words that might be harmful to the reputations of the opponents. This technique is used in the business scenario and it is framed as a lack of required abilities. It is important to maintain harmony in the interest of the parties that are concerned with the negotiation process. Diplomats across the world follow the principle of understanding the opponents and their concerns. It hence helps in the effective and harmonious negotiations.

Jeswald Salacuse mentioned that it is a time consuming and conflicting process and hence it is important to have patience all the time. American executives tend to make every process move fast as they treat time as money. Hence wasting time is like wasting money for the American diplomats and executives (Walsh, 2015). De Callieres kept on repeating the key aspects that he preached to the diplomats all the time. According to him, it is important to have an exploration of organisations’ countries and cultures done. Contemporary negotiators have derived a good amount of profits from the process. He also focussed on the fact of being a good listener so that the words of the opponent side are listened to well and perceived effectively (Fox, Alexander & Howieson, 2015).


Negotiation being a process of settling differences in opinions and viewpoints has been a common feature for ages. It prevails in the modern world too and we find the traces of negotiation on a very frequent level. It happens in all the stages and prospects of life and hence the statement that is given happens to be apt for the current scenario.



From the essay above we find that the process of negotiation is a common practice. It has been followed from the primitive ages and hence happens to have evolved to the present generation. As studied from all the theories and philosophies, it is found that the process of negotiation remains a feature in present-day circumstances. As in the given statement, it is true that the scene of negotiation is common and is popular too (Goldman & Shapiro, 2012). Additionally, it is proven that be it anywhere with anyone, the skills used for negotiation are the same. The basic skills used in the process of negotiation have been inherited in the generations and hence it is seen so frequently today. From the bureaucrats, diplomats, big salespersons, leaders and the common man everyone makes use of the policies of negotiations.



Butler, D.A. and Matthew, A.F., 2013. Air Gondwana and Mosswood Manor: blended learning environments utilising second life machinima to teach negotiation skillsINTED2013 Proceedings.

Beenen, G. and Barbuto Jr, J.E., 2014. Let’s Make a Deal: A Dynamic Exercise for Practicing Negotiation SkillsJournal of Education for Business,89(3), pp.149-155.

Bear, J.B. and Babcock, L., 2012. Negotiation topic as a moderator of gender differences in negotiation. Psychological science23(7), pp.743-744.

Dygert, C. and Van Rennes, R., 2015. Building your licensing and negotiation skills toolkitThe Serials Librarian68(1-4), pp.17-25.

Dygert, C.T. and Parang, E., 2013. Honing Your Negotiation SkillsThe Serials Librarian64(1-4), pp.105-110.

Fernandez, C.S. and Roberts, D., 2015. Strengthening Negotiation Skills, Part I: How to Use Facets of Knowledge to Create Influence for Public Health LeadersJournal of Public Health Management and Practice21(2), pp.214-216.

Furnham, A., 2012. Negotiation skills. In The Engaging Manager (pp. 120-122). Palgrave Macmillan UK.

Fox, K.H., Alexander, N. and Howieson, J., 2015. Negotiation: Strategy, Style, Skills. Lexis Nexis Butterworths (Australia).

Goldman, B.M. and Shapiro, D.L., 2012. Negotiation in the 21st Century Workplace: New Challenges and New Solutions. The Psychology of Negotiations in the 21st Century Workplace: New Challenges and New Solutions, p.1.

Guse, K., Levine, D., Martins, S., Lira, A., Gaarde, J., Westmorland, W. and Gilliam, M., 2012. Interventions using new digital media to improve adolescent sexual health: a systematic reviewJournal of Adolescent Health51(6), pp.535-543.

Hammerstone, J. and Hough, L.M., 2013. Build Your… Negotiation Skills. In A Woman’s Framework for a Successful Career and Life (pp. 65-85). Palgrave Macmillan US.

McCarthy, A. and Hay, S., 2015. Strategic Framework for Negotiation. In Advanced Negotiation Techniques (pp. 143-148). Apress.

Matsuura, M., Fuller, B., Kaufman, S., Kim, D. and Baba, K., 2013. Beyond “Negotiation 2.0”: Teaching negotiation in the multi-stakeholder, multi-level, and multi-processes world of public policyEducating Negotiators for a Connected World4, pp.217-246.

Page, D. and Mukherjee, A., 2014. Using Negotiation Exercises to Promote Critical Thinking SkillsDevelopments in Business Simulation and Experiential Learning33.

Sims, N. and Carter, S.J., 2016. Trust no agent: Building Strong Negotiation Skills.

Susilo, A.P., van den Eertwegh, V., van Dalen, J. and Scherpbier, A., 2013. Leary’s rose to improve negotiation skills among health professionals: Experiences from a Southeast Asian cultureEducation for Health26(1), p.54.

Sambuco, M.D., Dabrowska, M.A., DeCastro, M.R., Stewart, A., Ubel, P.A. and Jagsi, R., 2013. Negotiation in academic medicine: narratives of faculty researchers and their mentorsAcademic medicine: journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges88(4), p.505.

Walsh, K., 2015. Negotiation Skills for Medical EducatorsJournal of graduate medical education7(1), pp.12-13.


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