PM606 Advanced Social Science Sample

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BUS1016 Semester Two Assignment Brief

Literature Review – The positivist approaches and interpretivist approaches to social science, Focusing on the work of Max Weber

Introduction

This literature review has been focused on the second topic that has been focused on the positivist approaches and the interpretivist approaches to social sciences. The literature review will be based on the theory of Max Weber and Emile Durkheim and both of them have been focused on the positivist approach and the interpretivist approaches that will show the major portion mentioned as the human being under the positivist approach that will provide the different human natures under the organization. This positivist approach will focus on social inquiry and the characteristics of modern life. Max Weber’s literature view has been noticed the linkages gap among the nature of the individual experiences and the alienating characteristics of the contemporary society.

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Critical evaluation on literature review

Under this report, five articles have been selected for detailed analysis that has been focused on the application of the positivist and interpretivist concept in the social sciences. Human actions can be examined with the help of a different set of unique human parameters. Five different articles on the positivist and the interpretivist theory in connection with the application of the social sciences among the human under any organization. Man has been coming to know that the empirical world and the dominion of intelligibility are different concepts and the applicability of these two different concepts has been associated with the actions of senses and the activity of the human mind.

First Article:

https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.2307/1389258

Turner, Stephen Park. (1995). Durkheim’s “The Rules of Sociological Method”: Is It a Classic? Sociological Perspectives, Vol. 38, No. 1, Celebrating the 100th Anniversary of Émile Durkheim’s “The Rules of Sociological Method” (Spring, 1995), pp. 1-13

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The first article has been focused on Durkheim’s rule of sociological methods as the uncongenial characteristics of human nature have to be connected with the interpretation of human nature to the standard. As stated by Turner (1995), the reputation of the human natures has been analyzed under this model that will be considered the work history of a human being in terms of the positivist or interpretivist.  The rules under this theory have been focused by Durkheim on the basis of the positive side of the society where a man can interpret the development and growth of human characteristics with the help of two different parameters including the positivist and interpretivist concepts. The model has been considered the reputation interpretation of human nature in connection with the positive aspects and the society has been defined under this theory as the representations of the positive and interpretivist human being. It can be stated that the social sciences have been directly connected with the different characteristics of the human being within the society and the different views of the different human beings have been analyzed with the help of the two concepts including the positivist and the interpretivist approaches. The interpretivist approaches have been associated with the interpretation of different views of different human beings that will help in enhancing the positive aspects of every person. This will assist in building the society on the basis of the positive point of views people’s interpretation.

Second Article:

https://www.thoughtco.com/interpretive-sociology-3026366

Koch, A. M. (1994) “The Ontological Assumption of Max Weber’s Methodology” Texas Journal of Political Studies, 17 (1): 5-21

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The second article has been considered the human beliefs, experiences and behaviour of the people with the objective facts and the observations of the people. This article has been focused on the attempt to understand the social phenomena from the standpoint of some people who are inside the society. According to Koch (1994), Max weber’s positivist theory has been considered as going through any others shoes that are viewing at society from a different perspective. The interpretivist theory has been focused on the values, beliefs, actions and behaviours and the social relationships among the different people and their perceptions to the different aspects have been analyzed.  In this literature, positive thinking and feelings have been noticed under different people who are part of society. Max Weber has been created the positivist’s theory because he has noticed the lack of positivistic sociology. While Durkheim has been focused on the empirical, quantitative data in practice while sociology has been discussed. It has been observed that the positivist theory cannot be focused on all social phenomena. This theory is not able to consider the importance of the social phenomena and segregation among the different phenomena is also not possible through this theory. The reason behind the occurrence of the social phenomena cannot be analyzed by this positivist theory and the significance of the understanding about sociology and the view of the different aspects cannot be explained through this positivist theory. Under this literature, the research has been done on the different social people and their point of view has also been analyzed on the basis of the supplied data by them. This research has been conducted on the basis of the collection of qualitative data instead of quantitative data. The interview has been done under the qualitative research on the basis of the different focused data including the qualitative data analysis which will focus on the beliefs, understanding, perception of a people. This data should be collected on the basis of the social sciences and the application of the positive and interpretivist views will result in an accurate understanding of the social position from a different point of view.

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Third Article:

https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1057/978-1-137-58057-3_10

Matusov, E., Marjanovic-Shane, A. and Gradovski, M., 2019. .2: Dialogic and Positivist Research in the Social Sciences. In Dialogic Pedagogy and Polyphonic Research Art (pp. 265-281). Palgrave Macmillan, New York.

The third article has been focused on the comparison and contrast the dialogic and positive research under the social sciences which have been associated with the different legitimate applications of the research proposals. This article has been considered the cross-questions about the understanding of the social factors and the impact of those social factors within the society which will provide the positive and interpretivist views of the human being within the society. As portrayed by Matusov, Marjanovic-Shane and Gradovski (2019), it can be noticed that the objective voices and the subjective matters have been connected with the responses of the different people. Under this article, the predictions and the enlighten has also been considered under the different views on the sociological factors.  Social studies have been associated with the different applications of social factors including the personal factors of the people within the society. The comparison and the contrast among the different views of the social factors should be focused on in this article which will help in determining the accurate parameters of the social positivists and the interpretivists. This article has been depending upon the secondary research that will show the different points of view of different people living in the same society. The secondary research data can be articulate the final position of Max Weber’s positivist’s theory after considering all the social norms including personal beliefs, thinking and the point of view towards any event within the society. On the other hand, it has been observed that the legitimate norms and principles relating to the social aspects should be interrelated with each other and these principles have been associated with the different impacts on the different human beings within the society. The different knowledge and the perception of different human beings have been showing the several applicability of the positivist and the interpretive theory that will provide the different results in different situations. The different perception about the different application of the social factors has been associated with the personal beliefs and religions that will have different values to the different events under society.

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Fourth Article:

https://www.jstor.org/stable/589936?seq=1

References: Hund, John (1982). Are Social Facts Real? The British Journal of Sociology, Vol. 33, No. 2 (Jun, 1982), pp. 270-278

According to Hund (1982), the contemporary moral philosophy of different human beings has been showing the different aspects of positivists and interpretivists. The factual and the moral judgements have been interpreted as the controversy among the different people as the moral perception are different for several people and factual thinking of the several people has been showing different results under the same society. Under this article, the author has been asked about the social facts whether they are real or based on people’s beliefs, thinking and perception towards the different social factors. Under this article, the starting point has been determined as the different positions that will provide several results on the same questions. It can be stated that different persons are living under the same society with different beliefs and different understandings of the social positivity aspects. The interpretation of that theory on the social norms will also be different from different standing points and the so-called methodologies under the social sciences and the social relationship among the different sectors of people. The social sciences have been oriented with the help of the human society and the social relationship among the different level people. The people’s culture has also been associated with the social sciences that will determine the different level relationship among all levels of human beings. The humanities have been related marginal cases of the human behaviour which has been started in the school. In the low level of stages, the humanities have been noticed in the maximum level and the human relationship will also show the strong bond among the different level of group among which all the people are same in respect with the thinking, perceptions, beliefs etc. The democratic system among the different groups of human beings under the society has been analyzed by the positivists and the interpretivism theory which will show the maximum level of positivism among the different events inside the society.

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Fifth Article:

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S2214629617302062

Ambrose, A., Goodchild, B. and O’Flaherty, F., 2017. Understanding the user in low energy housing: A comparison of positivist and phenomenological approaches. Energy research & social science34, pp.163-171.

Under this literature, it has been observed that the positivism theory of the social cultures has been stated the different approaches towards the lower energy utilisation by the people through enhancing the natural resources usages. This will promote the better-quality living in the same society by the maximum number of people which will help in reducing the maximum usages of the energy power. As portrayed by Ambrose, Goodchild and O’Flaherty (2017), the different phenomena have been stated within this article which has been connected with the quantitative approaches to the domestic’s field of energy usages. Under this article, the building performance has been analysed which will help in recognising the continuity of the social sciences in the different aspects. It can be noticed that the open-ended qualitative research will show the lower level of energy consumption will derive positivity among the different levels of people. Under the same social sciences, the accurate application of the different approaches including the qualitative and the quantitative analysis will help in determining the accurate position of the human being that has been connected with the personal awareness and beliefs basis on religion. Social awareness has been connected with the range of people in joining with the common application of the positivity within the social views that will provide efficient collaboration among the different stages and level people.

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Conclusion

In examining the limitation of human nature, the reason behind the interpretative sociology theory has been clarified with the help of the motivation factors of the human under the organization. The mind of human character will be showing the confrontation and external reality that has been associated with the strictly physical and social aspects that have been connected with the limits of perception within the human characteristics. Religious matters have also been associated with the application of the social sciences within the organisation that will promote the different studies of positivist and interpretive theory. The limits on human actions have been noticed with the help of the perceptions, knowledge and understanding of the human natures under any circumstances raised in the organisation. The social sciences have been associated with the human mind and the ethical aspects of human characteristics. Therefore, it can be stated that both the theory of Max Weber‘s positivist theory and Durkheim’s theory of interpretivism will have different limitations and the applications of both theories in the actual situation have a lack of possibilities.

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References

Ambrose, A., Goodchild, B. and O’Flaherty, F., 2017. Understanding the user in low energy housing: A comparison of positivist and phenomenological approaches. Energy research & social science34, pp.163-171.

Hund, John (1982). Are Social Facts Real? The British Journal of Sociology, Vol. 33, No. 2 (Jun., 1982), pp. 270-278

Koch, A. M. (1994) “The Ontological Assumption of Max Weber’s Methodology” Texas Journal of Political Studies, 17 (1): 5-21

Matusov, E., Marjanovic-Shane, A. and Gradovski, M., 2019. .2: Dialogic and Positivist Research in the Social Sciences. In Dialogic Pedagogy and Polyphonic Research Art (pp. 265-281). Palgrave Macmillan, New York.

Turner, Stephen Park. (1995). Durkheim’s “The Rules of Sociological Method”: Is It a Classic? Sociological Perspectives, Vol. 38, No. 1, Celebrating the 100th Anniversary of Émile Durkheim’s “The Rules of Sociological Method” (Spring, 1995), pp. 1-13

 

 

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