QUALITATIVE RESEARCH OF CASE STUDIES

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Introduction

Qualitative research plays a crucial role in researching management problems. This research involves investigating through observations or evaluation of case studies to develop descriptive evaluations of the information gathered. Through a case study, the researcher investigates the research problem in a detailed manner. Case studies include in-depth studies on the research subject to determine potential patterns along with their related aspects. These case studies rely on qualitative data and are highly subjective and can be a useful tool to generate a thesis or to illustrate a principle. Considering these aspects, the purpose of the study is to describe qualitative research of case studies by evaluating various aspects of case studies.

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Qualitative research method

            Qualitative research involves using methods to generate a descriptive account of practice. Additionally, the qualitative research method emphasizes collecting information through open-ended and descriptive conversations. Using the qualitative research method, researchers can qualify or describe the collected data to evaluate all the potential aspects of the research problem. Consequently, it also helps to maximize the data as per the requirements of the research. Qualitative research methods are involved in evaluating the behaviors and opinions of the research participants descriptively to provide in-depth information related to the research subject (Rezapour Nasrabad, 2018). Along with that, qualitative research includes several methods, such as interviews, researching case studies, analyzing contents, and observing participants. Qualitative research provides descriptive data that is useful; hence, researchers use this research method to conduct descriptive research by evaluating potential factors.

Qualitative research methods come with open-ended questions that allow vast descriptions of the research topic. Consequently, with the help of a qualitative research method, the researcher can understand and describe the attitudes, behaviors, and opinions of the research participants. This practice helps the researcher to maintain effective relationships with the research participants or organizations to manage relationships with their stakeholders. Conducting qualitative research allows collecting genuine data from associated participants who can be used to generate influential content (Upright, & Forsythe, 2021). Along with that, using a qualitative research method involves a smaller sample size and thus, reduces the research budget. The research participants get encouraged by the researcher while conducting qualitative research, hence, which enables the researcher to eliminate bias while collecting data.

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Difference between qualitative research and quantitative research methods

Quantitative research involves gathering information by using numbers, graphs, and statistics, while qualitative research involves collecting descriptive data using open-ended questions. Quantitative surveys contain close-ended questions and qualitative interviews allow the participants to disclose their opinions and perspectives with descriptive words and in-depth knowledge. Additionally, quantitative research includes surveys or tests to confirm assumptions and develop facts about the research subject (Cardno, 2018). On the other hand, qualitative research provides an understanding of the concepts or opinions regarding the research subject. From the late 1940s, quantitative research methods became popular in research on social sciences, and the method was considered as more strong than the qualitative research approaches. Along with that, it led to a division in research methods between positivism in quantitative research approaches and constructivist paradigms in qualitative methods (Harrison et al. 2017). The quantitative research method involves gathering data from a large number of participants, while qualitative research involves gathering numerical or close-ended answers from research participants (Ahmad et al. 2019).

Quantitative research includes testing, measurement, and objectivity and comes with quantifiable data. On the other hand, qualitative research has become prevalent in management and educational research and can be intimidating (Upright & Forsythe, 2021). Additionally, the information collected from quantitative research is analyzed through numerical and statistical analysis, while qualitative data is analyzed through summarising and interpreting. Researchers use quantitative research methods to emphasize measuring and testing theories, but with qualitative research methods, the researcher provides insights and in-depth information from the case studies regarding the research subject (Gioia, 2020). Moreover, researchers collect data in quantitative research by organizing surveys with close-ended questions, and tests to develop numerical measurements and observations. While conducting qualitative research, researchers gather descriptive data by asking open-ended questions in interviews or group discussions and observing the culture, behavior, and perspectives of a community to gather in-depth information. These are the typical differences between qualitative and quantitative research methods according to which researcher determines the suitable research method to conduct their research (Aspers & Corte, 2019).

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Overview of case study

Case studies are essential for researching social sciences as this technique covers a variety of subjects. Along with that, a case study plays a crucial role in descriptive and biographical research. Case studies are commonly used in analyzing integration processes; hence, these are usually associated with evaluations (Yin, 2022). Consequently, a case study is a description of a historical and fictional situation that contains a particular problem or recommendations that should be made. Case study methods are often used in management research or programs as they provide vivid and descriptive information about the research subject. Additionally, it also enables the researcher to apply suitable theoretical concepts to mitigate the research problem (Ebneyamini & Sadeghi Moghadam, 2018). Thus, case study research is essential for conducting an in-depth study on a phenomenon by evaluating the perspectives and opinions of different participants.

A case study allows the researcher to have detailed knowledge about the research subject when conducting descriptive research. Along with that, a case study involves using qualitative methods to provide in-depth and detailed information. Case study research allows the researcher to develop expandable theories by collecting qualitative data and developing strategic options to overcome the research problem. Consequently, theory extension in case study research is different from mathematical modeling as in case study research it is provided with potential guidance (Ridder, 2017). In a case study, a theoretical extension is a vast approach than inductive research methods. Descriptive studies focus on exploring identities, and experiences along with social knowledge on a specific subject. Researchers use case studies to extant theories in qualitative research. Additionally, a case study research design is used to collect contextual and in-depth knowledge about the research subject to evaluate the implications and meanings of the phenomenon (Tobi & Kampen, 2018)

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Structure and steps of case study

Case study research involves investigating a phenomenon with in-depth knowledge and descriptive information. Along with that, researchers conduct case studies through written accounts regarding the specific phenomenon. Consequently, after conducting the case study research, the researcher develops a written case study on the phenomenon by using the in-depth information that has been collected via the research (Hancock, Algozzine, & Lim, 2021). Hence, the researcher has to follow a proper structure for writing case study reports. This can have several different structures, such as descriptive, exploratory, instrumental, collective, and explanatory. The purpose behind writing a case study is not always disclosed; however, it is linked to the research objective and to describe a specific phenomenon that had not been theoretically disclosed (Mcclunie-Trust et al. 2022).

The researcher has to determine a proper structure to provide detailed information about the phenomenon. The case study structure usually contains a brief explanation at the start, which reflects the overview of the specific phenomenon. Afterward, the researcher provides background information as the reasons or aims of the study and then evaluates all the potential aspects of the phenomenon (Sovacool, Axsen, & Sorrell, 2018). Consequently, after describing the phenomenon, the researcher develops some recommendations to mitigate the research problem or improve the condition. The researcher has to summarise the case study with a concluding statement explaining the implementation process of the recommended strategies (Hancock, Algozzine, & Lim, 2021).

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Behavior and contextual conditions of case studies

Case studies involve collecting huge data to describe any specific phenomenon. These case studies are often conducted to express an understanding of the behaviors and perspectives of a community or in the medical genre. To conduct experimental research on the behaviors and opinions, researchers conduct experimental research to form a case study on the specific incident or the specific person. Psychologists often generate case studies by using scientific research methods to guide their research (Proctor & Vu, 2019). While conducting experimental research, there can be variables of interest on which the behavior depends, and the variables are independent variables and dependent variables. These variables describe behavior as well as the reason for the specific behavior. Hence, it can be stated medical case studies contain the behavioral contexts of the research participants (Mcclunie-Trust et al. 2022).

The implications of contexts for developing theories have been increasing in research regarding management. Context is case studies are often described as external variables that require control. However, contextual conditions are essential in case studies as almost every case study is linked with qualitative research methods. On the other hand, in case studies related to business, researchers are not so attentive to contextual issues. Consequently, qualitative case studies focus on contextual conditions by linking them to case sampling (Hoorani, Nair & Gibbert, 2019). Hence, it can be stated that context and case sampling are aligned in qualitative case studies as per their potentiality in the research subject. In the case studies, researchers focus on contexts as multidimensional phenomena and conditions that have the potential to determine the methodology and other practices regarding the case study (Gupta et al. 2020).

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Data collection and data analysis in the case study

Researchers develop case studies usually after collecting a vast amount of data from multiple resources. Data collection in a case study can be done by organizing interviews, group discussions, and observations to obtain in-depth knowledge and gather information about the specific phenomenon. Hence, case studies are linked to qualitative research methods as researchers gather descriptive data. While conducting a case study. The researcher emphasizes collecting data from observations, archives, and interviews (Mohajan, 2018). Additionally, a case study is usually conducted to evaluate perspectives, opinions, and explanations for a specific phenomenon, hence, researchers triangulate data to develop a detailed description of the incident.  The data provided in case studies can lead the researcher to identify potential patterns to develop, extend, or confirm a theory that can be used to improve the phenomenon (Mfinanga et al. 2019).

In the present scenario, to evaluate the potential advantages, researchers usually choose cross-case analysis. The cross-case analysis provides detailed information about the similarities and variations in data and their impact on the subject of the case study. Due to this advantage, researchers analyze case studies individually as different cases developing potential theoretical recommendations. Hence, case studies contain individual objectives along with differentiated theories and recommendations. The cross-case analysis is a method to accelerate data from these individual case studies (Sadeghi Moghadam et al. 2021). Along with that, the cross-case analysis also helps the researcher to produce new knowledge by comparing and contrasting different case studies. The cross-case analysis enables researchers to use case study information for a broad purpose as well as, this analyzing method also involves enhancing the researchers’ innovation to reveal new dimensions and develop strategies and alternatives. To conduct a case study, the data collection method and data analysis method methodology play a crucial role. The data collection method can be both types as “primary data collection method and secondary data collection method”. On the other hand, the data analysis method can be both the “qualitative and quantitative data analysis method” (Mohajan, 2018).

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Designing a case study

Case studies are often used to describe “how” and “why” questions regarding a specific incident or a particular research subject. Additionally, case studies can emphasize multiple cases regarding the same or similar phenomenon to generate strategic options to improve the situation or mitigate the problem (Hatcher et al. 2018). Designing a case study requires the researchers’ thorough knowledge of the issue as well as the case study process. The case study involved forming research questions as well as interpreting and evaluating their potential answers by collecting descriptive data and analyzing the data (Hoorani, Nair, & Gibbert, 2019). Designing a case study includes inductive and deductive research approaches per the research subject’s requirement.

The inductive research approach helps to generate potential theory to mitigate the research problem, while the deductive approach theoretical principles help to evaluate the collected data. Case studies are usually conducted to obtain an understanding of a specific phenomenon, hence, intensive and descriptive data along with the complexity of the phenomenon are usually emphasized. To develop a case study, the researcher has to follow certain dimensions such as reduction-complexity and monologue-multilogue (Blonk, 2015). Designing a case study includes several potential factors with their perspectives and opinions. A time-honored tradition is a case report and in today’s structure whatever the people know, they know from the individual’s case studies. To design a case study, one can start with caution (Nguyen et al. 2014). The writers are encouraged to write the case studies with a level of moderate objection and apprehension.

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Result

          From the overall study, the result can be determined in many processes. As it is mentioned above this is qualitative research for a case study and the data collection method and data analysis method have been taken for the research (Çakar & Aykol, 2021). The primary data collection method is concerned with the primary data of research. The research participants participate in this survey and analyze the survey to give answers to the survey questions (Salmons, 2021). On the other hand, the result of a case study can be determined from the secondary data collection method.

The secondary data is collected from different relevant and authentic sources such as journals, which were published after the year 2018, newspaper articles, books, and many more. The result of a case study also can be identified by qualitative research which is concerned with open-ended questionnaires and descriptive conversations (Lindgreen et al. 2021). In contrast, the result of a case study can be determined by the quantitative research method. The quantitative research method is linked with closed-ended questionnaires and conversations. The result can be determined by applying all the methods of methodology in the case study and these methods help to conduct the research of the case study further. The information that can be obtained from the quantitative research method with the help of numbers, statistics, or graphs, that information may be established as the result of the case study. On the other hand, the result of the case study can be established from the qualitative research method as it provides information by using open-ended questionnaires.

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Conclusion

          From the overall context, it can be concluded that the case study is mainly based on the qualitative research of a case study. It is also concluded about the qualitative research method. The qualitative research method is concerned with gathering information with the help of observation and investigation of the case study. This present study also gave the difference between the qualitative research method and the quantitative research method. From the difference, it can be stated that the qualitative research method deals with open-ended questionnaires while the quantitative research method deals with closed-ended questionnaires or surveys. It can be concluded from the overall study about the data collection and data analysis method. It also concluded the designing of a case study through different steps.

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References

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