Tobacco use is one of the health concerns in many communities in the USA and other parts of the world. According to the data from WHO, tobacco use is the major public health concern in the world (Berry et al., 2019). Tobacco use has continuously increased in the communities despite the various mitigation strategies by the departments of public health. It is estimated that about 34 million adults in the USA are active users of tobacco and about 58 million people are directly exposed to secondhand smoke in the nation (Berry et al., 2019). This trend has steadily increased over the years affecting both adults and youths in the USA. The various forms of tobacco use include smoking, chewing, snuffing, and e-cigarettes. Smoked tobacco is the most popular form of tobacco use and the various methods of smoking tobacco are pipes, cigarettes, and cigars (Berry et al., 2019).
The data from the WHO indicates that the impact of smoked tobacco in the community is tremendous due to secondary exposure to non-smokers. Healthy People 2020 objectives include reducing the use of tobacco among communities and the targeted tobacco use is below 15% (Berry et al., 2019). This figure is becoming unrealistic because of the various triggers of smoking in the communities. According to Jarvis and Brown (2019), the various triggers to Tobacco use among youths and adults include peer pressure,
addiction, Tobacco lobbying groups, tobacco adverts, community culture, and related drug use such as alcohol. Peer pressure is a fundamental factor, especially among the youths in the community. University students, schools going children are introduced to smoking through friends who use tobacco (Berry et al., 2019). Tobacco lobbying groups are business premises that run lucrative adverts on social media to improve the sales of tobacco in the communities.
Tobacco smoking has been associated with so many health concerns. The active ingredient in tobacco use is nicotine which is toxic and causes health concerns. According to the WHO data, tobacco use is the leading cause of non-communicable diseases in the world. According to Jarvis and Brown (2019), the diseases caused by tobacco smoking have a direct association with the quantity and duration of tobacco use, thus individuals who consume large quantities of tobacco over a long period are greatly affected. The conditions attributed to smoking tobacco are cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension, heart disease, peripheral arterial diseases, diabetes, and coronary arterial diseases (Wang et al., 2018). Additionally, narrowing of blood vessels and the development of atherosclerosis is caused by smoking.
Tobacco use is a major risk factor for developing several cancers.
Research indicates that over 90% of chronic smokers develop lung cancer (Wang et al., 2018). The association between cigarette smoking and lung cancer is so massive that second-hand smokers also have a 30% risk of developing lung cancer (Wang et al., 2018). Other malignancies attributed to tobacco smoking are bladder cancer, oesophagal cancer, throat and mouth malignancies, colorectal cancer, cervical cancer, kidney cancer, blood cancers, and many others (Wang et al., 2018). In women, tobacco use causes infertility, pregnancy losses, recurrent abortions, congenital fetal malformations,
gestational diabetes and hypertension, and fetal demise.
The underlying assumptions and points of uncertainty are the perceived health benefits of tobacco use. Recent data indicated that tobacco use is preventive in the development of uterine fibroids and ovarian cancer (Wang et al., 2018). Additionally, the research did not find a substantive association between the development of breast cancer and tobacco use. Additionally, an assumption is that the tobacco smoking culture of a community is one of the triggers of tobacco use among children and the upcoming generations. Parents who smoke with their children not only expose the children to tobacco smoke but also instil the smoking culture in them. This can be linked to the higher numbers of children smokers whose parents are also smokers. Additionally, another point of uncertainty is the economic impact of tobacco sales. Nations benefit from the sales of tobacco thus limiting laws and policies against tobacco use in the community.
Addressing the health concerns in the community is important to promote the general health of the community. Community nurses have the task of limiting tobacco use to prevent the various health concerns associated with tobacco smoking. Primary health care services which are preventive are important to reduce the number of new users of Tabaco in the community. Research findings have associated tobacco use with several health implications caused by tobacco smoking. By implementing strategies to curb tobacco use, many diseases would be prevented thus improving the health of the population. Research indicates that over 480, 000 deaths are annually caused by tobacco smoking (Watkins et al., 2018). This emphasizes the importance of mitigating health concerns in the community.
The health concern is also important in improving the health of the community because of secondary exposure to non-smokers.
Research indicates that over 41,000 deaths are caused by secondary exposure to smoking (Watkins et al., 2018). Additionally, a recent study showed that for every 1 smoker, 30 non-smokers are suffering from serious health complications related to secondary exposure to tobacco.
Addressing health concerns is also important since it limits the financial implications of the community members during the treatment of tobacco-related diseases. Both the public health and the patients incur additional resources when managing preventable diseases. Research indicates that tobacco is a major cause of preventable diseases in the world (Watkins et al., 2018). By preventing these diseases, the disparity in access to health care due to financial restraints will be limited. Management of coronary arterial diseases requires complex surgeries that may not be afforded by many individuals in the community. Lack of access to such services is the major cause of tobacco-related death. Primary prevention is better than cure.
The health goals agreed upon in collaboration with participants are to reduce the number of new tobacco users, to help those already using tobacco quit, to reduce the health implications of tobacco use, and to manage tobacco-related complications to reduce disease morbidity and mortalities. Public health nurses and community nurses have a role in reducing the number of new tobacco users. To successfully achieve this goal, they have to collaborate with the participants who are smokers and organize community educative programs that aim at exposing the harmful effects of smoking on children, youth, and adults (Watkins et al., 2018).
The goal of aiding active users to quit smoking can be achieved when community nurses help the population understand the toxic effects of smoking. Nurses may also support individuals who want to quit smoking by offering professional rehabilitative services, nicotine replacement therapies, behavioural approach services, and proper management of withdrawal symptoms (Wang et al., 2018). Support to rehabilitative centres can also be provided by the government and organizations working to limit tobacco use.The goal of reducing the health complications of tobacco users will help in preventing fatal health conditions. Nurses may collaborate with participants to offer screening services such as cancer screening, blood pressure screening, heart disease screening for early detection. Study indicates that early detection of premalignant lesions, cancers and cardiovascular diseases results in a better prognosis of patients (Wang et al., 2018). The goals of adequate management of health complications attributed to tobacco use reduce disease morbidity and mortalities. According to Jarvis and Brown (2019), community nurses cooperate with participants to eradicate hindrance to health services, improve access to health care, and initiate care coordination when managing these patients. Care coordination with an interdisciplinary team and family members result in inadequate monitoring of patients outcome
and general improvement in health care.
Berry, K. M., Fetterman, J. L., Benjamin, E. J., Bhatnagar, A., Barrington-Trimis, J. L., Leventhal, A. M., & Stokes, A. (2019). Association of electronic cigarette use with subsequent initiation of tobacco cigarettes in US youths. JAMA network open, 2(2), e187794- e187794.
Wang, T. W., Gentzke, A., Sharapova, S., Cullen, K. A., Ambrose, B. K., & Jamal, A. (2018). Tobacco product use among middle and high school students—the United States, 2011–2017. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 67(22), 629.
Watkins, S. L., Glantz, S. A., & Chaffee, B. W. (2018). Association of noncigarette tobacco product use with future cigarette smoking among youth in the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) study, 2013-2015. JAMA paediatrics, 172(2), 181-187.Order Now