ORGANISATIONAL CHANGE

Posted on February 15, 2022 by Cheapest Assignment

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BHO0217 Global Management in Context Coursework Sample

Change Management Assignment

Question 1: Analysis of Theoretical Perspectives

Change is an important and significant aspect of any kind of business process or functionality. Various organizations are there that changed their procedures for getting the suitable outcome in the business premises. Through those overall understanding a smooth evaluation of the whole matter could be done. Various theoretical perspectives are there which could be incorporated in the case of operational outcomes. In this particular paper two important change management theoretical perspectives have been considered and through this whole consideration significant outcomes over the issue could be found out. There are various aspects and principles present which could make strong interpretation over the change management procedure. In this particular case two importance change management theories have been taken for the analysis purpose. These two change management principles are;

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  • McKinsey 7S Model
  • Lewin’s Change management Model

Analyses of these two theoretical perspectives have been presented below in a detailed manner;

McKinsey 7S Model: This has been a trending set up for the business organizations for doing change. In the year of 1980 this model was developed by McKinsey and since then it has been delivering proper ideologies and knowledge towards the change management process. This whole theoretical perspective is incorporated with seven important facts and figures. Analyses of these facts have been presented below;

  • Strategy: Strategy should have to be built in such way that it could reduce the past flaws and show the new pathway to achieve the goals. 
  • Structure: Appropriate organizational structure needs to be formed for making any kind of change.
  • Systems: Proper system needs to be formed for executing all kinds of activities in a proper and efficient manner. 
  • Style: proper style of adopting new principles would be required in the business process.
  • Shared Values: Core values must have to be present for managing all kinds of works. 
  • Staff: Efficient and skilful staffs are required for making any kind of change in the organizational premises.
  • Skills: Proper skills would be needed for making any significant changes.

Lewin’s Change management Model: This is another theory which could be resembled with the change management procedure and through this process an organization could be able to gain some understandings. This concept was established in the year of 1950 and this has following concepts;

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  • Unfreeze: This is the first step where change management procedures are prepared and set for the evolution.
  • Change: This phase showcases the steady changes in the organizational procedure. Besides it also could be stated as the phases where changes are made.
  • Refreeze: In this phase applied changed are fixed for the business procedures and functionalities.

Definition of change as per McKinsey 7S Model: As per this theory change should have to be made by following some important and significant stages. These phases are designed for different aspects and all are interrelated for making a successful change.

Definition of change as per Lewin’s Model: Lewin’s model showcases the conditions for change in the organizational premises. 

 

Questions 2: Analysis of the change by focusing on an organization

A) Introduction of the organization

The paper is mainly concentrating on the organization British Airways. By taking this organization, analysis of making change could be understood. Through this observation significant evaluation of the whole matter could be evaluated. British Airways has been considered as the largest air service provider of United Kingdom and the organization has huge hold and reputation in the marketplace. Consumers prefer this organization due to its extra ordinary services towards its consumers. In around 183 destinations are covered by this airline. British Airways made different business propositions which made them special in the marketplace. Through this overall analysis it could be stated that BA has the courage the roadmap of getting success but still lots of problems are occurred in a business premises. By the help of suitable analysis one thing could be stated that British Airways has all sorts of skills and potential to make a successful pathway. Here, some of the challenges faced by the organization in the business premises have been mentioned. Through this analysis all sorts of outcomes could be obtained. 

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B) Changes made in the organizational premises of British Airways

British Airways restructured its entire organizational procedure for the betterment of the whole procedure. The organization was evolved in the year of 1970 by the support of four other aircraft companies. The organization had almost 50000 employees and over 200 aircrafts. During the oil crisis in the UK market, BA loosed their reputation and their staffs. In the year of 1981 Lord King stated that every single aspect must have to be taken care of properly as resources were used badly. 

Prime target or goal of King was to reduce the unnecessary cost of the business and for this reason he reduced the manpower from 50000 to 30000. Unprofitable routes were rejected from the business procedures. Different marketing experts were brought by the Kind and as a consequence the organization is the market leader of UK market. The market share of the company is about $284million dollar.

Lots of negative trolling was made during the employee turnover in that period. In that occasion King declared officially the reason behind this type of decision and step. As per analysis the decision or change was good for the business process as by the help of this process organization could be able to gain sustainable position.

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C) Relate the change with the theories 

In the above section changes made by British Airways in the business process could be understood. This change could easily be related to the theories present in the initial sections. Relation of this change with these two theories has been presented in an effective manner;

  • McKinsey 7S Model: As per this model seven important steps are needed for making the changes. First Lord King made the strategy for doing the change then structure was set by reducing the number of employees. A significant protocol or system was maintained with uniform style or enhancing profit by reducing unwanted costs. New experts were hired by the management of the organization for enhancing the values.
  • Lewin’s Model: This was another model described in the analysis section. Through this model it could be stated that first Lord King started thinking of making change in the business procedures, and then he changed the process with reducing staffs and enhancing profits. After doing that Lord King finalize all the aspects by declaring the change in an official platform. Through the whole process this change is related to this Lewin’s model.

Through this particular discussion relationship between real changes and theoretical perspectives could be understood. This analysis shows how change of British Airways related to the theoretical perspectives of Lewin and McKinsey. Through this whole understanding significant output could be evaluated in an effective way. British Airways has got success by initiating this change in the organizational premises.

Question 3: Analysis and understanding of SWOT Factors

A) SWOT Analysis of British Airways

In this case British Airways has been chosen for the analysis purpose and through this whole analysis different aspect of the change management could be understood. This section is highlighting the change management issues in British Airways which was taken in 1981 by Lord King due to oil crisis. For this reason SWOT analysis for that particular phase was considered here where the organization faced trouble due to oil crisis. SWOT analysis has been presented here in a detailed table format;

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Strength

  • 50000 employees were working in this organization.
  • 200 aircrafts were there.
  • Great reputation and good will in the marketplace. 
  • Four Companies were merged for making this BA and strength of the organization was so high for this reason.
  • Skilful staffs were there.
Weakness

  • A massive oil crisis was found in the marketplaces.
  • Due to oil crisis financial condition was badly interrupted.
  • Market strength was dissolved.
  • Organization was not been able to provide wages to the staffs.
  • Market share of the organization was badly interrupted.
Opportunities

  • Though there are huge challenges present but the organization had huge strength to growth in the market.
  • A sustainable change was needed for getting sustainable position in the marketplace. 
Threats

  • Oil crisis might stop the flow of work.
  • The organization might be closed due to this issue.
  • The situation was such like that the organization could be obsolete from the market due to unnecessary costing.

 

Through the above SWOT analysis existing position of BA in 1981 could be understood. For mitigating this problematic issue change was made and change was happened by reducing the staffs from the business. As the cost was enhanced, Lord King suggested to reduce the manpower strength and resources based costing. The organization mainly focused on the relevant investment procedures and by hiring experts from outside organization could be able to save their costing. As a consequence the organization is now the number one air service providers of United Kingdom. Through this process respective management could be able to concentrate on their core functionalities and they could enhance their funding whereas the organizations still faced the trouble of oil crisis. As a result the organization has the highest market share in recent times, the company has $284billion worth in the marketplace.

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B) Benefits and drawbacks of SWOT analysis in the case of business process

SWOT analysis has been a significant and efficient tool for the business process execution. By the help of this procedure, management of an organization could be able to understand the overall potential of the firm.

  • Advantages of SWOT: Through the SWOT analysis an organization could be able to judge the barriers and problems. Best opportunities and growth could be categorized through this way. An organization could be familiar with all kinds of possible threats and challenges in the marketplace. Self weakness also could be driven through this process and that could help to make changes in the organizational premises. Core strengths could be highlighted and an organization could understand what sorts of activities must have to be given extra care. It gives a constant support for maintaining the flow of the procedures effectively. 
  • Disadvantages of SWOT: An organization always goes with momentum and principle. Due to SWOT analysis that momentum and growth could be blown badly in the business premises. As per analysis it could be stated that SWOT analysis couldn’t able to deliver a perfect picture or dimensions of the business, it always delivers the snapshot of the procedures. Sometime many business organizations get trouble by relying on this procedure as sometime it generates false information and that could make big blow in the business procedure. Mainly manual survey is done for getting right kind of overview on this particular matter. This manual procedure can make big problems for the organizations and these types of problems can change the goals and targets of the respective business process.

Through the above mentioned analysis benefits and drawbacks of SWOT analysis in the business premises could be understood in an efficient and effective manner.

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Question 4: Role of a Change agent in the organizational change management procedure

Change management is the essential and significant aspect of the business process and it was described in the above sections clearly. Every single business organizations try hard to focus on this issue for the betterment of the whole procedure. By the help of this process an organization could be able to gain success in the business platform. Through this whole analysis, it could be stated that change management must have to be implemented in the business premises for getting long term success. Through this success parameter an organization can find out its growth and opportunities in the marketplace. Change agent is also could be stated as an individual from indoor or outdoor of the firm who helped to make this changes happen. Change agent has huge duties and responsibilities in the organizational procedures. Overall organizational development and improvement features are depended on this particular quotients or parameters. Through this fundamental analysis significant outcome could be evaluated. As per analysis it could be stated that seven essential and important roles are there which must have to be executed by change agent and brief analyses of all those roles have been presented below;

  • Investigate: Change agent must have to be familiar with the needs and demands of the organization. On the basis of that judgment change agent needs to concentrate on organizational behavior and culture. Feedbacks and queries of stakeholders also need to be judged. Through investigating all these types of elements a successful change could be done in the organizational premises. 
  • Advocate: Change agent has the duty to advocate the whole process, may be it could be said that change agent has the duty to make the pathway for executing this whole procedure. In a business process many people are working and everyday they are busy with their regular works. Change agent has to promote the concept of change among them so they could be able to gain some knowledge on this. Through this process they also could be able to take part in this process. 
  • Encourage: Lots of risks are there in the change management process and for this reason many stakeholders don’t want to make changes. Change agent must have to be familiar with all these procedures and they need to encourage people by showing them the benefits of making change in the organizational premises. 
  • Facilitate: Appropriate pathway needs to be evaluated in the business premises for doing the change. Change agent should have to make such procedure which could be easy for the staffs to execute. All kinds of elements need to be easy and user friendly so that people associated with the organization can easily run all sorts of things.
  • Mediate: A common understanding should have to be made among all the parties and change agent should have to work such a mediator to make smooth balance.
  • Advise: In any kind of crucial situation agent should have to stand with the organization and he also has to highlight some fruitful ways to enhance the performance.
  • Manage: Multiple problems could be raised during the whole procedure and change agent should have to manage all these elements significantly so that all sorts of functionalities can give smooth outcome.

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Relate the role of change agent with the case study of British Airways

This paper is mainly showcasing and highlighting the organization British Airways. British Airways has huge reputation in the market place for their quality service towards the customers. In the year 1981, Lord King took the charge of doing the change due to high oil price. As oil price was high in that situation profit margin was sunk and an immediate change was required by the management side so that significant outcome could be evaluated. At that moment organization had huge challenges and for this reason Lord King was acting as change agent. Lord King focused on all the roles of the change agent and executed the functionalities in an appropriate manner. Through the analysis it could be stated that Mr. King understood the organizational needs and demands properly and then asked the management to adjust with the current changes. On the other hand Lord King also brought various experts for managing all sorts of activities in an appropriate manner. Through this whole process role of Lord King as a change agent could be understood. Lord King has proved himself as a successful change agent and the process brings success for the British Airways.

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Question 5

Define and critically discuss both problem-centric and dialogic approaches to change.

There have been two approaches by which change could be occurred which involves the problem centric and the dialogue approaches to change. In the problem centric approach it has been defined as the identification and the evaluation of the problems to be occurred when there has been any kind of change is to be occurred. According to Battilana & Casciaro, (2012) the problem centric approach is that where the individual should be allowing it to conduct a detailed research study and integrating the theory with practice as well as applying the knowledge for resolving a particular problem which could be the main focus of why change has been brought in. There has been the development of the basic solution to the problem encountered which is useful for the problem centric approach to be viable for any change to be occurred as well. In this approach to change there has been the improvement of the reasoning abilities, communication skills as well the critical thinking skills needs to be improved which is useful for sorting out the problem for which change has been occurring. 

On the other hand there has been the dialogic approach to change which is completely different from the problem centric approach to changes in organizations. According to Kaminski, (2011) the dialogic approach to change is the modern concept of bringing in organizational change which has the primary aim of communicating the change in front of the employees and the other stakeholders involved with any organizations. It is the fact that there should be the analysis of the social constructs which has been prevailed by the different case studies, narratives and conversations which is useful in bringing in change and the change needs to be proved right and he right way of maintaining and sustaining the change for the staffs working in the organizations.  

Briefly identify which theoretical ontology of organizational change 

It is important to identify the fact that for the problem centric approach to be involved in bringing the change o be occurred in British Airways which is the change in the organizational structural change and the change in the marketing side of the business. So it has been really relevant that the objectivism as the ontological approach needs to be useful in underpinning the problem centric change to be occurred for British Airways (Shin et al, 2012). In this ontological perspective there has been the identification of the proper objectives to be ensured for managing and determining the change and so the objectivism as the ontological perspective should be linked with this kind of approach. 

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The next ontological perspective to be taken into consideration could be the social constructivism and in this perspective there should be the construction of the social status, social ideas needs to be gathered and after that the social information should be utilized in an organization for developing and maintaining a rapid change within an organization. In this study with the change in the entire organizational structure where there has been reduction of the workforce to be taken place for British Airways there should be proper communication to be identified for this change to be involved and this will eventually help in understanding the society in such a way that there should not be any kind of misperception and misinterpretation of the social ideas required for the employees to communicate and adopt to this change to be occurred. 

Critically assess the benefits and drawbacks of each of these approaches to change management.

There have been various types of benefits and drawbacks to be involved in problem centric and the dialogic approach to change and there should be the critical discussion on the approaches to this change management is to be included. According to Jones & Jones, (2010) the problem centric approach has the greatest advantage is that in this approach there has been the identification and assessment of the real problem to be done which is useful for identifying the change. It has the advantage of developing long term knowledge in the domain where the change has been identified as it develops the critical thinking skills of an individual. In accordance with  Choi,  (2011) the drawback of this approach is that this change does not gets communicated which implies that the change which has been identified does not known by the different stakeholders of any organization where they have been employed in. 

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In accordance with Jones & Jones, (2010) the major advantage of the dialogic approach to change is that there has been the social construction is important which involves that there have been the social gatherings and knowledge has been wide open. The next could be that the change has been communicated among the other employees involved in organization. In accordance with Shin et al, (2012) the major drawback of dialogic approach is that the practical insights have not been introduced and only the theoretical approach has been made stronger. 

 Identify which of these approaches you would prefer to use to manage the change you identified in 2a and explain why.

It is identified from the change to be occurred that from the two approaches top change management there should be the usefulness of problem-centric approach is more important to manage and control the change occurred. The reason behind this approach to be undertaken by British Airways is that in this approach there has been the root cause and the problem to be identified having the link of how and why change needs to be initiated in BA. 

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References

Jones, G. R., & Jones, G. R. (2010). Organizational theory, design, and change.

Benn, S., Dunphy, D., & Griffiths, A. (2014). Organizational change for corporate sustainability. Routledge.

Oreg, S., Vakola, M., & Armenakis, A. (2011). Change recipients’ reactions to organizational change: A 60-year review of quantitative studies. The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science47(4), 461-524.

Choi, M. (2011). Employees’ attitudes toward organizational change: A literature review. Human Resource Management50(4), 479-500.

Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2015). Making sense of change management: A complete guide to the models, tools and techniques of organizational change. Kogan Page Publishers.

Shin, J., Taylor, M. S., & Seo, M. G. (2012). Resources for change: The relationships of organizational inducements and psychological resilience to employees’ attitudes and behaviours toward organizational change. Academy of Management Journal55(3), 727-748.

Battilana, J., & Casciaro, T. (2012). Change agents, networks, and institutions: A contingency theory of organizational change. Academy of Management Journal55(2), 381-398.

Erwin, D. G., & Garman, A. N. (2010). Resistance to organizational change: linking research and practice. Leadership & Organization Development Journal31(1), 39-56.

Kaminski, J. (2011). Theory applied to informatics-Lewin’s change theory. Canadian Journal of Nursing Informatics6(1).

Shirey, M. R. (2013). Lewin’s theory of planned change as a strategic resource. Journal of Nursing Administration43(2), 69-72.

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